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Final Year Project
Analysis and Interpretation of the petrophysical properties of Mamuniyat reservoir in El-Feel Oil Field, western part of Murzuk Basin, NC-174, Libya
AbstractThe sandstone of Upper Ordovician Mamuminyat Formation represents part of stratigraphic column in Murzuq Basin, south west Libya. It is the primary reservoir target in the basin, soursed and caped by Lower Silurian Tanezzuft Shale (Sola, 2000). The Mammuniyat reservoir in Murzuq Basin is characterized by lateral and vertical variation of petrophysical properties duo to lateral change of depositional environment and the digenetic effect on the formation load various facies deposition quality. The Concession NC174 is discovered in 1997 by Lasmo Grand Maghreb Limited then On the 26th October 2003 the development drilling campaign started by MOG till thepresent time. The El feel field is the major discovery in NC174. Porosity range is 16-18% and permeability some hundreds millidarcys. The Net thickness/Gross thickness ratio varies from 20% to 95% with an average value of 70%. The sedimentary fill in the Murzuq basin is mainly Paleozoic to Mesozoic in age and reaches a thickness of about 4000 meters in the depocenter. The sedimentary sequence is punctuated by several regional unconformities corresponding to successive tectonic activity phases. In the area of NC174, the tectonic phases developed anticlines and fault bounded anticlines generally super-imposed and re-actived through time. The resulting structural style is characterized mainly by poli-history sub-vertical reverse faults with different directions (N-S, NNW-SSE and NNE-SSW), these faults bound most of the prospects apparently superimposed on subtle anticlines oriented SSWNNE along which the culminations are aligne.
خالد مسعود الزوام (2014)
Sedimentological Aspects of the Sarir Sandstone in Messla Oil Field, Southeastern Sirt Basin, Libya
AbstractThe Sarir Sandstone in Messla Oil Field are of Lower Cretaceous ageAptian Alpian and occur in the subsurface of the eastern part of the Messla high in the southeast Sirt Basin. The Sarir Sandstone interpret as fluvial and alluvial fan deposits whereas the Lower Sarir Sandstone were deposited in a braided system as inter-channel bars. The Upper Sarir Sandstone were deposited in the meandering belt of the fluvial system. The Sarir Sandstone is on-lapping Formation and wedge out against Rakb Group. The Sarir Sandstone is unconformable overlies the Pre-Cambrian Basement and unconformable overlain by the Upper-Cretaceous Rakb Group where it is pinching (wedging) out against the Bald Basement; Messla High)). Lithostratigraphic correlations of borehole logs ((well logs)) in concession 65 suggests that deposits gradually downed a fault controlled topographic surface increased in thickness on the down-thrown side of a fault controlled the topographic surface of Pre-Upper Cretaceous Unconformity. IV M. Sc. Hassin Haweel “Sedimentological Aspects of the Sarir Sandstone in Messla Oil Field”, 2015 Core Samples record mainly sandstone units interbedded with sandstone and shale and minor streaks and the Red Shale Unit. Estimation of depositional environment has thus been made from grain size analyses using thin sections. Petrographic studies show that the Sarir Sandstone in composition from (subarkose to arkosic arenite). The Sandstones range from texturally immature to submature, however, much of the clay content is diagenetic in origin and not a function of the depositional regime. Diagenetic studies reveal a gnite complex paragenesis. During early diagenesis, the Sarir Sandstones were modified by Calcite, dolomite, and locally pyrite, diagenesis process; replacements of corroded silica by carbonates. Cementation fluvial sandstones Intrastratal dissolution and precipitation of kaolinite in the resulting pore space. Deformation of micas between more resistant grainy pre-dates one phase of quartz overgrowth, probably the carbonates.The purpose of this study was to investigate in detail the characteristics of the Sarir Sandstone in Messla Oil Field. Another aim was to find out the relation to the adjacent area. The method of this study was conducted with the review of the previousworks in Messla Oil Field; published papers, the open file of the Arabian Gulf Oil Company (AGOCO), well files for the data to be used in constructing maps, cross sections and profiles. Four cored wells (418 feet) V M. Sc. Hassin Haweel “Sedimentological Aspects of the Sarir Sandstone in Messla Oil Field”, 2015 were used for the core descriptions and cut samples that represent the Sarir Sandstone and (130) thin sections were used for the Petrographic analysis with polarized and scanning electron microscopes (SEM). On the other hand, XRD and XRF were not available. The results of the study were: Subsurface investigations including cores (conventional and side walls), petrographic analysis, and wire-line logs suggested that this formation (Sarir Sandstone) can be divided in to three main units in Messla Oil Field; these units are: The Lower Sarir Sandstone, the Red Shale, and the Upper Sarir Sandstone. In the adjacent area Sarir Formation was divided in to five members; Pre-Upper Cretaceous Member-1 unconformably overlying Pre-Cambrian Basement, and upwards; Member 2, Member 3, Member 4, and Member 5 unconformably overlain by Rakb Group. The Lower Sarir Sandstone in Messla Oil Field is characterized by the presence of gravely sandstone, gradually changes in to the Red Shale. Also, from the core descriptions plotted sheets, and the well logs it is finning upwards. The quarzitic sandstones of (the Lower and the Upper Sarir Sandstones) are considered to be the main producing horizons where quartz grains have undergone a complex diagenetic history, including: Authigenesis, quartz and feldspar overgrowths, dissolution, carbonates cementation, and replacement. The principal conclusion was that: the gravelly sandstone unit at the Lower part of the Lower Sarir Sandstone was deposited, most likely in a braided system as inter-channel bars. The sandstone unit of the Upper Sarir VI M. Sc. Hassin Haweel “Sedimentological Aspects of the Sarir Sandstone in Messla Oil Field”, 2015 Sandstone was deposited in the meandering belt of the fluvial system. The shale facies of the Red Shale unit represents a well-developed break between the Lower Sarir Sandstone and Upper Sarir Sandstone units; it also provides a good seal for the underlying sandstone of the Lower Sarir Sandstone. The nature of the shale facies, (i.e. lack of organic content, and presence of oxidizing conditions indicated by iron oxides color, indicate that they are not a significant source of hydrocarbons. On the other hand, the Rakb Shale isthe only source rock in the studied and adjacent areas.
حسين محمد علي حويل (2015)
Temporal and Spatial Evolution of Some Laser Fusion Parameters
AbstractThe search for a reliable source of energy has been a challanging task to manking while conventional energy resorces are diminishing nuclear fusion, especially laser fusion, promises to be the source of the future. Experimental costs in laser fusion are astronomical and computer modeling drastically minimizes such costs and gives a chance for less fortunate Gauntries to gain insight into the scientific and technical aspects of the subject since a large portion of information involved is classified. This work deals with the spatial and temporal evolution of the laser fusion produced by different laser pulses It is based on a computer code called MEDUSA which takes into account the variation in the wavelength, power density pulse duration, target geometry and material. It assumes a target which is divided into 20 cells each of 24 urn width. Inverse-Bremsstrahlung and resonance absorption are the two main mechanisms responsible for absorption of energy from the incident laser pulse. Fusion takes place in the plasma as a result of ablation of the plasma corona where the formed shock waves compress the plasma cells and heat them. The rate of energy deposited into and radiated from the plasma ,which causes variation of the plasma internal energy, is expressed by the energy equation. This equation is transformed into a finite difference form and solved by Gauss Elimination Method to calculate the plasma parameters such as electron(T e) and ion ternperatures(Ti), pressure(P) and density(p) and the different processes of energy absorption and losses. The temporal evolution of these parameters is studied through the divisions of the pulse into chosen time steps at which the evolution is clear. The results have shown that by increasing laser power the energy deposited into and radiated from the plasma increases. The electron and ion temperatures the plasma pressure and density also increase. This is because of the geadual propagation of the shock wave from the surface of the pellet towards its center causing compression of the plasma cells. The optimum value of such parameters are obtained close to the end of the pulse where the incident laser power is maximum and so as the energy deposited into the plasma center where heating and compression causes the consumption of the whole target After the end of the pulse duration, the plasma cells coordinates expand and the plasma parameters decrease, a process known as diminishing of the plasma The effect of the laser parameters of four diffterent lasers namely CO2, KrF, Nd-glass and Ruby of 5ns, 15ns and 45ns pulse duration was studied. It was found that: (1) the maximum value of the plasma parameters decrease by increasing the pulse duration of a certain power and wavelength, (2) the maximum value of the plasma parameters increase by increasing the wavelength because of increasing the energy deposited into the plasma by resonance absorption process. At the optimum implosion time, the plasma parameters show a strong spatial variation. However, a strong temporal variation of the plasma parameters was observed at the pellet center.
هناء محمد حسن موسي (1994)
Petrography and Diagenesis of `as Sarir Formation` in Abu Attifel Oil Field, Sirt Basin, Libya
AbstractThe Sirt Basin is one of the youngest sedimentary basins in Libya and covers an area of approximately 600.000 km² in north central Libya. It is located on the northern margin of the African plate, with approximate coordinates 14°00`- 20°00`E and 28°00`-31°00`N. The Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous as Sarir Sandstone in the Sirt Basin evolved as a consequence of the interplay between global eustasy and regional tectonics. As Sarir Sandstone of the eastern Sirt Basin is composed mainly of sandstones and shales resting unconformably on a basement complex of igneous and metamorphic rocks. It is unconformably overlain by the Upper Cretaceous sediments of Maragh, Lidam and Etel formations. It has been subdivided into three members. The upper member consists mainly of sandstones with intercalations of siltstones and shales of variable thickness. The middle member consists of shale and silty shale. The basal part of the formation, which rests directly on the crystalline basement represents the lower member. It is comprised of sandstone with subordinate intercalations of siltstones and shale. Two main facies have been recognized on the basis of lithological features and types of stratifications: which consist mainly of shale and intercalation of silt and sand. The Middle Shale Member consists mainly of shallow lake deposits, containing black shale facies. Continental Fluvial Deposits represent most of the cored interval and it belongs to the Upper as Sarir Sandstone. These facies have been subdivided into braided and meandering lithofacies: The braided depositional system, has been recognized in three different intervals of the studied cores; classified as subfacies (1), subfacies (2) and subfacies (3). The meandering depositional system, represents three sub-environments including point bars, abandoned channels and over-bank deposits. The reservoir characteristics of these sediments are studied on the basis of porosity, permeability and reservoir zonation. The reservoir quality of As Sarir Formation is largely controlled by primary sedimentary features associations, which were shaped by the depositional environments. Meandering Lithofacies are formed from continuous sand successions and show good porosities, up to 18.51%, and permeabilities up to 125.5mD. The Braided Lithofacies also show good reservoir quality, but the effective porosity and permeability are lower, because of associated shales. The most important diagenetic features responsible for a reduction in reservoir quality are those resulting from compaction, cementation, and the diagenesis of clay minerals.
صلاح الدين محمد الوحيشي (2014)
Study Of Large Deflection Of Plates Using Finite Elements
AbstractThe static behavior of large deflection of plates is considered. The w-F governing equations for large deflection of plates are derived and Solved using Finite Element with Galerkin approach to calculate the static deflection and for parameter values which span the design space. An Incremental Iterative technique were used. The Galerkin Method was used to derive the element stiffness matrix and load victor. A three node- 18DOF Triangle Element was selected to calculate the nodal field variables. Two boundary conditions were considered, the simply supported and clamped plates. A well prepared program used for plates with small deflection,, Linear Problem,, was modified to handle the changes in the governing equations and apply the solution techniques. A good fit with previous published studies was found.
القاسم محمد كامور (2009)
Origin and Geologic Evaluation of Umm Ar Razam Clays Al Faidiyah Formation, NE Libya
AbstractThe study area is located in and around Umm Ar Razam village, about 50 Km east of Darnah city, north-eastern Libya. In this study many claystone sections were studied. These claystones belong to the lowermost part of Al Faidiyah formation of Upper Oligocene – Lower Miocene age. The studied sections consist of claystone beds ranging in thickness about 10 meters. These bentonitic clays are generally grey to greenish grey in colour, with popcorn – like appearance. They have a waxy character and are exposed sporadically in this area as isolated outcrops. They might be deposited in lagoonal, lacustrine or shallow marine environment. The main purpose of this thesis is to study the origin and to evaluate the Umm Ar Razam bentonitic clays. For example, lithology, mineralogy, the chemical composition, crystal forms and habits, physical properties, industrial uses and treatment will be investigated. The Results showed that these clays consist of the minerals Na- montmorillonite, Kaolinite, and Illite. Non – clay minerals includes quartz, calcite, dolomite, gypsum, halite, muscovite, rutile, sanidine, and tridymite. Moreover, clay mineral fraction studies using the different techniques showed that these bentonitic clays were formed due to in situ alteration of volcanic ash in subaquous environment. Evidences for such an occurrence include mineralogical evidence as the existence of high temperature minerals as sanidine, rutile, and tridymite. The existence of unaltered volcanic ash as seen from SEM photomicrographs also supports this origin. Furthermore, XRF results showed downward depletion of silica right below these bentonitic clays 6 in calcarenite beds of Al Abraq formation. XRF results also showed that the Umm Ar Razam bentonites are in accordance with the American bentonites and the parent material of such bentonites came from basic volcanic ash materials. In addition, the viscosity and the filtration of Umm Ar Razam bentonite is nearly identical with the international bentonite by adding (Soda Ash) and (Na2 SiO3 ) with special treatment method. The cost of the Enhanced Umm Ar Razam bentonite is less than of the imported bentonite cost. Based on the physical and chemical properties these bentonites can be used in many industries especially as building materials and drilling fluids.
فيصل عياد أبو سهمين (2009)
Managing Change of Project in”Oil Industrial Sector"
AbstractThe success of projects are depends on the people involve and how they tackle the design of the projects for specific needs, planning of activities, budget cost and execution to achieve the ultimate goal. Each phase of the project contributes an important task and this will reflect on how good the project management handled by the team.Project management means managing all the relevant activities of the project within the given constraints of time and cost, however , to complete specified project as per schedule and within the allocated budget, an accurate planning and optimization of all available resources will be required to complete all the tasks.During the projects, changes can occur even though the original scope may have been carefully planned. These changes might occur at any times and in ways that are unexpected.Changes during project execution can significantly affect not only time schedule but may affect also the economical aspect of the project. This phenomenon can be considered as normal and experienced world wide especially in the third world countries wherein lack of technical knowledge and resources are major problems.This study concerns the majority of the managerial changes occurred during the project execution step and the role of the organization in handling such changes as competitive and finding solutions in order to manage the project effectively.Many oil companies in Libya were facing numerous problems in the delay of project implementation, poor quality management, planning and poor performance which deviate from the required project objectives. Changes that occur later in the implementation cause serious problems in delaying the project schedule and increasing costs, effectively are reducing the benefits of the project.By Appling the questionnaire that consists of 30 specific questions which have been distributed to 13 Companies under umbrella of National Oil Corporation (N.O.C). Eight out of thirteen companies were responded.The analysis of the data collected from submitted questionnaire has been analyzed using Microsoft Excel 2000. That allows simple setting and manipulation of the data collected.Statistical data and interviews on the respondent companies indicate the following items: Full dependency on the external contractors to fully execute the project implementation that leads to high cost of contracts (EPC contracts).Poor supervision leading to significant delay of the implementation of the project. (Specifically of E P contracts).The Project Implementation profile (PIP technique) has been used on this study to evaluate one of the project which had delay and some other related problems selected random as case study. The analysis covered all the factors for project implementation. Technical factor.Managerial factors.Controlling factors. In order to improve the project management for oil & gas companies listed in this research and to overcome such problems. This study recommends a good communication and coordination system connecting all local petroleum companies and providing data exchange which enables to minimize time, cost personnel and learn from mistakes.
زينب مختار المصري (2007)
Study of the Liquid-Liquid Equilibrium for the System Acetonitrile + Benzene + N-heptane
AbstractThis research was an attempt to use the currently available activity coefficient methods with universal sets of parameters to simultaneously predict ternary liquid-liquid equilibrium data. The focus of this research was to calculate phase equilibrium data within fair error using set of Parameters obtained from the above-mentioned models. The significance of this work is to study the liquid-liquid phase equilibrium of the ternary system at several temperatures and to test the capability of the various equilibrium models to correlate these data. A series of liquid-liquid equilibrium measurements were performed by changing the composition of the mixture.The prepared mixtures were placed in the extraction vessel and stirred for 2 h and then left to settle for 4 h. Samples were taken by a syringe from both the upper phase and lower layers. Both phases were analyzed using gas chromatography equipped. Liquid-liquid equilibrium for the ternary system acetonitrile + benzene + n-heptane was measured at 298,313,333 K. The results were used to estimate the interaction parameters between each of the three compounds for the NRTL and UNIQUAC models as a function of temperature. The estimated interaction parameters were successfully used to predict the equilibrium compositions by the two models. The UNIQUAC equation was the most accurate model in correlating the overall equilibrium compositions of the studied system. NRTL models satisfactorily predicted the equilibrium compositions. In each of the mentioned the ternary system, the calculated and experimental data were compared. The root mean square deviation (RMSD) between the observed and calculated mole percent for NRTL, UNIQUAC was 1.44%, 1.35% for acetonitrile + benzene + n-heptane
عماد الدين محمد الزغداني (2014)