Dr. IbrahimEldaghayes

Department of Microbiology & Parasitology Faculty of Veterinary Medicine

Full name

Dr. Ibrahim Mohamed Emhemed Eldaghayes


Doctor of Phiosophy

Academic Rank



Ibrahim Eldaghayes is one of the staff members at the department of 9 faculty of 6. He is working as a since 2017-02-20. He teaches several subjects in his major and has several puplications in the field of his interest.

Contact Information

روابط التواصل


Doctor of Phiosophy

Virology and Immunology
University of Bristol, UK
10 ,2005


Why there were few cases of coronavirus disease 2019 in Libya during the first two months of the pandemic?

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic that affected almost all countries worldwide with more than 29,439,120 confirmed cases and 932,486 deaths recorded till on September 14, 2020. However, on May 25, 2020, after 2 months from the first reported case of COVID-19 in Libya, the country was among very few countries in the world that had very few cases of COVID-19 with a total of 75 confirmed cases and three deaths during the first 2 months since the detection of the first case on March 24, 2020. Based on the global epidemiological pattern of the disease, the magnitude of COVID-19 in Libya could have been much worse. However, the reality is eccentrically different and the epidemiology exhibited different scenario with very few cases being recorded during the first 2 months of pandemic in Libya. In this article, a review of COVID-19 situation in Libya is presented with thoughts about the potential reasons that could explain the very few cases of COVID-19 in the country in context with the global figures of the pandemic.
Ibrahim Eldaghayes(11-2020)
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Extent of pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms in whole muscle meat, meat products and seafood sold in Libyan market

Background: Whole muscle meat, meat products, and seafood contain different nutrients in adequate quantity providing a better environment for presence and replication of different microorganisms. There are underreported and inaccurate estimations of foodborne diseases due to the lack of effective surveillance systems in Libya. Aim: To determine the extent of microbiological contamination of whole muscle meat, meat products, and seafood. Methods: A total number of 731 samples of retail meat were collected from different stores in four cities in Libya. Samples were analyzed for aerobic plate count and subjected to microbiological enumeration and isolation techniques, followed by molecular identification by PCR and partial sequencing of 16S rDNA. Results: The results showed contamination of samples with enteric and spoilage bacteria. Fifteen genera of spoilage bacteria yielded 149 isolates which were detected and identified by PCR and partial sequencing of 16S rDNA as: Proteus spp., Provedencia spp., Raouttella ornithinolytical, Citrobacter spp., Enterobacter spp., Morganella morgi, Shewanella algea, Rhodobacter capsulatus, Listonella pelagia, Kluyvera spp., Pectobacterium spp., Brenneria spp., Klebsiella spp., Acintobacter radioresistens, and Pantoea spp. While for pathogenic bacteria, 143 isolates distributed among nine genera were identified by PCR and partial sequencing of 16S rDNA as: Bacillus spp., Escherichia spp., Shigella spp., Enterococci spp., Cronobacter spp., Staphylococci spp., Salmonella spp., Aeromonas spp., and Vibrio spp.. Many isolated bacteria are zoonotic bacteria with high importance for public health. Conclusion: Excessive handling and processing of meat and meat products seems to be one of the poorest microbiological qualities. These findings ought to be helpful in risk assessments and quality assurance of meat in order to improve food safety.
Ibrahim Eldagahyes(9-2020)
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Determination of Serological Data to Understand the Epidemiology of Foot-and-mouth Disease Virus Serotypes Circulating in Libya

This study was focused mainly on the third of these components to measure the level of NSP antibodies as indicator of past or current FMDV infection, irrespective of the vaccination status. Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks have been sporadic in Libya for nearly fifty years. A countrywide serosurvey was conducted in the spring of 2013 to assess the extent of FMD virus circulation and identify FMD virus serotypes in the country. A total of 4221 sera were collected, comprising samples from large ruminants (LR; n=1428 samples from 357 farms) and small ruminants (SR; n=2793 samples from 141 farms). FMD sero-prevalence of NSP antibodies determined by ELISA were 19.0% (271/1428) with 95% CI (16.9 - 21.0) and 13.5% (378/2793) with 95% CI (12.3 - 14.8) for LR and SR samples, respectively. The sero-prevalence of NSP antibodies in LR was 12.3% and 19.8% for age group < year and 1 year, respectively (X2=4.95,P=0.026), while in SR was 3.7%, 13.6% and 21.3% for age group 2 year, respectively (X2=118.1,P=0.000). These observed NSP serologic profiles support the hypothesis of an endemic level of FMD circulation in Libya. All positive sera were tested for SP antibodies for O, A and SAT-2 FMD virus serotypes. Serotype O was the dominant circulating serotype followed by serotype A, while evidence of SAT-2 was not found. These data provide an insight into the wider epidemiology of FMD in Libya, and contribute to field and laboratory investigations that during 2013 serotype 0 (O/ME-SA/Ind-2001 lineage) was isolated from clinical samples collected from the country. To have a better understanding of livestock production, data collecting on the management system, and risk factor analysis, more study should be done. As a result of the findings, scientists can better understand the epidemiology of FMD and design scientifically sound disease control techniques to reduce the impact of FMD on Libyan livestock.
Ibrahim Eldaghayes(4-2022)
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Inferring the population structure of the Maghreb sheep breeds using a medium-density SNP chip

North Africa has a great diversity of indigenous sheep breeds whose origin is linked to its environmental characteristics and to certain historical events that took place in the region. To date, few genome-wide studies have been conducted to investigate the population structure of North African indigenous sheep. The objective of the present study was to provide a detailed assessment of the genetic structure and admixture patterns of six Maghreb sheep populations using the Illumina 50K Ovine BeadChip and comparisons with 22 global populations of sheep and mouflon. Regardless of the method of analysis used, patterns of multiple hybridization events were observed within all North African populations, leading to a heterogeneous genetic architecture that varies according to the breed. The Barbarine population showed the lowest genetic heterogeneity and major southwest Asian ancestry, providing additional support to the Asian origin of the North African fat-tailed sheep. All other breeds presented substantial Merino introgression ranging from 15% for D'man to 31% for Black Thibar. We highlighted several signals of ancestral introgression between North African and southern European sheep. In addition, we identified two opposite gradients of ancestry, southwest Asian and central European, occurring between North Africa and central Europe. Our results provide further evidence of the weak global population structure of sheep resulting from high levels of gene flow among breeds occurring worldwide. At the regional level, signs of recent admixture among North African populations, resulting in a change of the original genomic architecture of minority breeds, were also detected.
Ibrahim Eldaghayes(8-2019)
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Occurrence, characterization, and antibiogram of Staphylococcus aureus in meat, meat products, and some seafood from Libyan retail markets

Aim: The aim of the current investigation was to screen the presence of Staphylococci spp., especially S. aureus in meat, meat products of different animal species, and some seafood sold in some retail markets in Libya using cultural and molecular techniques, and to study their antibiotics resistance profiles. Materials and Methods: A total of 139 samples from red meat, meat products, and seafood were collected from many areas in Libya. Enumeration and isolation of Staphylococci spp. and S. aureus by normal cultural methods followed by molecular identification using molecular techniques by bacterial DNA extraction and partial sequencing of 16S rDNA. Results: Out of 139 samples, 112 (80.6%) were contaminated with different species of Staphylococci based on cultural characteristics of Staphylococci on Baird-Parker medium, for which S. aureus was detected in only 32 samples (23%). However, only six out of 18 (33.3%) isolates sent for sequencing were confirmed to be S. aureus using the molecular technique. The six identified isolates of S. aureus were tested for antimicrobial resistance against 24 most commonly used antibiotics. All isolates were resistant to only two antibiotics (cefotaxime and clindamycin). Among these six isolates, only one confirmed to be methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Conclusion: Results of this study suggest that food of animal origin could be a source of S. aureus with antimicrobial resistance characteristics that can be spread through the food chain, and raise the importance of these results for public health.
Ibrahim Eldaghayes(6-2019)
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Exploiting serological data to understand the epidemiology of bluetongue virus serotypes circulating in Libya

The epidemiological patterns of Bluetongue (BT) in North Africa and Mediterranean Basin (MB) dramatically changed by emergence of subsequent episodes of novel bluetongue virus (BTV) serotypes with highly pathogenic indexes and socio-economic impacts. The objective of the study was to investigate the sero-prevalence and serotype distribution of BTV in Libya. During 2015-2016, a total of 826 serum samples were collected from domestic ruminants in Libya. All sera were assayed by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (c-ELISA). C-Elisa-positive samples (43.3%; 173/400) were further analyzed by virus neutralization assay to identify BTV serotypes and determine the antibody titre of positive samples. An overall BTV sero-prevalence was 48.4% (95% CI: 45.0%-51.8%). Neutralizing antibodies were detected against the following BTV serotypes namely: BTV-1, BTV-2, BTV-3, BTV-4, BTV-9 and BTV-26. While BTV-1, BTV-2, BTV-4 and BTV-9 circulation was unsurprising as they have been responsible of the last year outbreaks in Northern African Countries, the detection of BTV-3 and BTV-26 was definitely new and concerning for the animal health of the countries facing the Mediterranean Basin. It is crucial that European and Northern African authorities collaborate in organizing common surveillance programmes to early detect novel strains or emerging serotypes in order to set up proper preventive measures, and, in case, develop specific vaccines and plan coordinated vaccination campaigns.
Ibrahim Eldaghayes(11-2018)
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Reconstructing the evolutionary history of pandemic foot-andmouth disease viruses: the impact of recombination within the emerging O/ME-SA/Ind-2001 lineage

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease of livestock affecting animal production and trade throughout Asia and Africa. Understanding FMD virus (FMDV) global movements and evolution can help to reconstruct the disease spread between endemic regions and predict the risks of incursion into FMD-free countries. Global expansion of a single FMDV lineage is rare but can result in severe economic consequences. Using extensive sequence data we have reconstructed the global space-time transmission history of the O/ME-SA/Ind-2001 lineage (which normally circulates in the Indian sub-continent) providing evidence of at least 15 independent escapes during 2013–2017 that have led to outbreaks in North Africa, the Middle East, Southeast Asia, the Far East and the FMD-free islands of Mauritius. We demonstrated that sequence heterogeneity of this emerging FMDV lineage is accommodated within two co-evolving divergent sublineages and that recombination by exchange of capsid-coding sequences can impact upon the reconstructed evolutionary histories. Thus, we recommend that only sequences encoding the outer capsid proteins should be used for broad-scale phylogeographical reconstruction. These data emphasise the importance of the Indian subcontinent as a source of FMDV that can spread across large distances and illustrates the impact of FMDV genome recombination on FMDV molecular epidemiology.
Ibrahim Eldaghayes(10-2018)
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Bacillus cereus as an emerging public health concern in Libya: Isolation and antibiogram from food of animal origin

Background: This study was conducted to investigate the presence of Bacillus cereus in meat, meat products, and some seafood in Libya. Materials and Methods: One hundred and thirty-one samples were collected from different geographic localities in Libya. The samples were subjected to microbiological analysis for enumeration and isolation of B. cereus by conventional cultural, biochemical, and molecular identification using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and partial sequencing of 16S rDNA techniques. Results: Of 131 samples, only 38 (29%) isolates were found to be B. cereus based on their cultural characteristics on Mannitol Egg-Yolk Polymyxin (MYP) medium that included 30% beef, 38.2% beef products (minced, burger, kabab, and sausage), 31.8% camel meat, and 48% chicken products (burger, sausage, kabab, and liver). However, B. cereus was not detected from mutton and seafood samples. Seventeen isolates were subjected to molecular identification using PCR and partial sequencing of 16S rDNA technique and confirmed to be B. cereus. The confirmed B. cereus strains were tested for their antibiotic sensitivity profiles and showed a high percentage of multiresistance phenotype. Conclusions: The results provide a better understanding of B. cereus isolated from food of animal origin in Libya and suggest that meat and meat products might play an important role in the spreading of B. cereus through the food chain with antimicrobial resistance characteristics.
Ibrahim Eldaghayes(6-2018)
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Molecular Identification, Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Profile of Cronobacter spp. Cultivated on a Chromogenic Medium in Libya

Background: Cronobacter sakazakii is associated with illness in infants from contaminated powdered infant formula (PIF) and it is frequently recovered from PIF factory environment. Limited information is available on contamination of other food such as dairy and meat products in Libya. Methods and findings: A total of 261 samples of milk, dairy products and coarse ground meat products were collected from different localities in Libya. Samples were examined for Cronobacter spp. with an adapted ISO /DTS 22964 cultural protocol using HiChrome™ Enterobacter sakazakii modified agar coupled with 16S rDNA partial sequencing to identify the organism. The identified isolates were biochemically characterized and tested for their ability to produce yellow pigment. Out of the 261 analyzed samples, only two beef burgers, one fermented milk “Laban”, one she-camel’s milk, two raw cow’s milk, two cereal baby food, one Maassora cheese and one ready to feed baby milk were contaminated with Cronobacter spp. at a total rate of 3.8%. Accuracy of HiChrome Ent. sakazakii modified agar reach 100% as all of blue-green presumptive colonies were confirmed Cronobacter spp. while other colorless, greenish or with blue center colonies which competed growth with Cronobacter spp. were predominantly Escherichia coli followed by Klebsiella spp. and to less extent Pseudomonas luteola, Citrobacter freundii and Acinetobacter baumanii. Moreover, the isolated strains of Cronobacter were resistant to Amoxicillin, Erythromycin, Vancomycin and Streptomycin, and sensitive to Doxycycline, Enrofloxacin and Gentamycin. Conclusion: This study documents for the first time the occurrence of Cronobacter spp. in beef burger, raw cow’s milk, fermented milk “Laban”, she-camel’s milk, Maassora cheese, cereal baby food and ready to feed baby milk sold in Libya, by using conventional methods, biochemical tests and molecular techniques.
Ibrahim Eldaghayes(12-2017)
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Biosecurity and geospatial analysis of mycoplasma infections in poultry farms at Al-Jabal Al-Gharbi region of Libya

Geospatial database of farm locations and biosecurity measures are essential to control disease outbreaks. A study was conducted to establish geospatial database on poultry farms in Al-Jabal Al-Gharbi region of Libya, to evaluate the biosecurity level of each farm and to determine the seroprevalence of mycoplasma and its relation to biosecurity level. A field team of 7 Veterinarians belongs to the National Center of Animal Health was assigned for data recording and collection of blood samples. Personal information of the producers, geographical locations, biosecurity measures and description of the poultry farms were recorded. The total number of poultry farms in Al-Jabal Al-Gharbi Region is 461 farms distributed in 13 cities. Out of these, 102 broiler farms and one broiler breeder farm (10 houses) which were in operation during team visit were included in this study. Following collection of blood, sera were separated and tested by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the presence of antibodies against Mycoplasma (General antigen for M. gallisepticum and M. synoviae). The seroprevalence of Mycoplasma in the region was 28% (29 poultry farms out of 103 were infected). About 50% (23 out of 47) of poultry farms located in Garian city were infected with Mycoplasma and one significant cluster of Mycoplasma infection in the city was identified. Low level of biosecurity was found in poultry farms of the region. Out of the 103 farms included, 63% of poultry houses has a ground of soil and 44% of them has uncoated walls which may influence the proper cleaning and disinfection. Almost 100% of the farms are at risk of exposure to diseases transmitted by wild birds such as avian influenza and Newcastle disease due to absence of wild birds control program. Although, 81% of the farms have entry restrictions, only 20% have disinfectants at entry which increase the risk of exposure to pathogens. The results of this study highlight the weakness points of biosecurity measures in poultry farms of Al-Jabal Al-Gharbi region and high seroprevalence of mycoplasma. Data collected in this study will assist the Veterinary authorities to apply effective disease control strategies.
Ibrahim Eldaghayes(4-2017)
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Sero-prevalence and epidemiology of peste des petits ruminants in Libya

We conducted a cross-sectional study during 2013 to quantify the serological prevalence of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) infection and to investigate host factors associated with PPR infection in small ruminants in Libya. A two-stage sampling design was carried out. A total number of 148 flocks owning at least 100 heads each were randomly selected. Sixteen to forty-eight samples were collected from each selected flock. A total number of 3,508 serum samples from unvaccinated animals were collected and analysed at IZSLER Brescia, Italy, by using competitive ELISA, IDvet innovative diagnostics (IDvet 310, France). The overall serological prevalence among SR was 33% (95% CI: 31.4–34.5). Significant differences between the prevalence in the geographical branches were observed. The lowest prevalence level was observed in Zawiyah branch (16.1%), whereas the highest value was obtained for the Sabha branch (56.8%). Considering the age, a serological prevalence of 24.7%, 31.5% and 42.1% was observed in SR
Ibrahim Eldaghayes(7-2017)
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An epidemological study on Peste des petits ruminants in Tripoli Region, Lybia

A cross‑sectional study was conducted in Libya in 7 areas of Tripoli to determine the seroprevalence of Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) Virus (PPRV) in small ruminants (sheep and goats) between June and August 2013, and to identify the potential risk factors associated with the infection. The study involved 10% of small ruminant herds with ≥ 50 animals in the Tripoli region. They were selected randomly (15 herds), and 35 to 58 samples, depending on its size, were collected from each selected herd. Seven‑hundred and twenty‑one serum samples from unvaccinated animals (601 of sheep and 120 of goats) were collected and then tested using cELISA commercial kit in the National Center of Animal Health Laboratory in Tripoli, Libya. The overall seroprevalence was 46.7% [(sheep 44.3% (266/601) and goats 59.2% (71/120)]. Mean within‑herd prevalence was 48.5% (95% CI: 32.1% ‑ 64.8%), and the herd prevalence was 93.3% (14/15). Various risk factors at the animal and herd levels were analysed by multivariable logistic regression model (forward stepwise). The results identified breed, source of animal, and region as significant risk factors (p < 0.05). As for the source of new animal to the farm, PPRV seroprevalence was highest in illegally imported animals (90.9%), followed by the seroprevalence in animal legitimately acquired (55.8%), and by the seroprevalence in animals belonging to the same herd (4.7%). The seroprevalence among breeds was 69.5% (228/328) in illegally imported animals, whereas 27.7% (109/393) was found to be in local breed. Seroprevalence in the areas considered in this study was higher (66.2%) in Al‑Mashroa area followed by Ein‑zara (57.8%), Arada (50%), Ben‑Own (47%), AL‑Naem (37.5), Ber‑Alalem (24.5) and in Tajora (0%). The results indicated that PPRV virus was actively circulating in Tripoli regions and that the illegal importing of animals was the main source of spreading PPR in Tripoli regions, showing that better efforts should be made to raise public awareness with respect to biosecurity.
Ibrahim Eldaghayes(7-2017)
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This study was conducted to investigate the presence of Enterococcus spp. in meat, meat products and seafood. A hundred and four samples were randomly collected from different geographic localities in Libya. The samples were subjected to microbiological analysis for enumeration and isolation of Enterococcus spp. by conventional cultural and molecular identification using PCR and partial sequencing of 16S rDNA techniques. Out of 104 samples, 73 (70.2%) isolates were found to be enterococci based on their cultural characteristics on ESD medium. However, out of 36 samples subjected to molecular identification, only six isolates were confirmed to be Enterococcus spp. using PCR and partial sequencing of 16S rDNA technique. All enterococci strains tested for their antibiotic sensitivity profiles showed high percentage of multi-resistance phenotype. These results can be used for further studies on enterococci as an emerging food borne pathogen and its role in human infection in Libya and would suggest that meat, meat products and seafood might play a role in the spreading of enterococci through the food chain with antimicrobial resistance characteristics.
Ibrahim Eldaghayes(6-2017)
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Exploiting serological data to understand the epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotypes circulating in Libya

Sporadic outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) have occurred in Libya for almost fifty years. During the spring of 2013, a countrywide serosurvey was undertaken to assess the level of FMD virus circulation and identify FMD virus serotypes in the country. A total of 4221 sera were collected, comprising samples from large ruminants (LR; n=1428 samples from 357 farms) and small ruminants (SR; n=2793 samples from 141 farms). FMD sero-prevalence of NSP antibodies determined by ELISA were 19.0% (271/1428) with 95% CI (16.9 – 21.0) and 13.5% (378/2793) with 95% CI (12.3 – 14.8) for LR and SR samples, respectively. The sero-prevalence of NSP antibodies in LR was 12.3% and 19.8% for age group < 1 year and ≥ 1 year, respectively (X2= 4.95, P= 0.026), while in SR was 3.7%, 13.6% and 21.3% for age group < 1 year, 1-2 year and > 2 year, respectively (X2= 118.1, P= 0.000). These observed NSP serologic profiles support the hypothesis of an endemic level of FMD circulation in Libya. All positive sera were tested for SP antibodies for O, A and SAT-2 FMD virus serotypes. Serotype O was the dominant circulating serotype followed by serotype A, while evidence of SAT-2 was not found. These data provide an insight into the wider epidemiology of FMD in Libya, and contribute to field and laboratory investigations that during 2013 serotype O (O/ME-SA/Ind-2001 lineage) was isolated from clinical samples collected from the country.
Ibrahim Eldaghayes(1-2017)
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In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Flavonoid Extracts of Two Selected Libyan Algae against Multi-Drug Resistant Bacteria Isolated from Food Products

This study aimed to evaluate the antibacterial activity of flavonoids extracted from two Libyan brown algae namely Cystoseira compressa and Padina pavonica using microwave-assisted extraction method against pathogenic bacteria isolated from meat, meat products, milk and dairy products (Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus (5 isolates), Bacillus cereus (3 isolates), Bacillus pumilus (1 isolate), Salmonella enterica subsp. enteric (4 isolates) and Enterohaemor-rhagic Escherichia coli O157 (EHEC O157) (4 isolates)). All of these isolates were muti-drug resistant with high MAR index. The results showed that C. compressa extract exhibited better and stronger antibacterial activities against the seventeen tested isolates with inhibition zones diameter ranged from 14 - 22 mm compared to P. pavonica extract which showed positive effect against 9 isolates with low inhibition zone ranged from 11 - 16.5 mm. Flavonoids extracted from C. compressa also displayed the best spectrum of bactericidal effect with a ratio MBC/MIC ≤ 4 obtained on all susceptible tested bacterial strains. Flavonoids and proanthocyanidins significantly contributed to the antibacterial properties. The mode of action of these active extracts is under investigation.
Ibrahim Eldaghayes(1-2017)
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Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157 in milk and dairy products from Libya: Isolation and molecular identification by partial sequencing of 16S rDNA

Aim: The aim of this work was to isolate and molecularly identify enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157 in milk and dairy products in Libya, in addition; to clear the accuracy of cultural and biochemical identification as compared with molecular identification by partial sequencing of 16S rDNA for the existing isolates. Materials and Methods: A total of 108 samples of raw milk (cow, she-camel, and goat) and locally made dairy products (fermented cow’s milk, Maasora, Ricotta and ice cream) were collected from some regions (Janzour, Tripoli, Kremiya, Tajoura and Tobruk) in Libya. Samples were subjected to microbiological analysis for isolation of E. coli that was detected by conventional cultural and molecular method using polymerase chain reaction and partial sequencing of 16S rDNA. Results: Out of 108 samples, only 27 isolates were found to be EHEC O157 based on their cultural characteristics (Tellurite-Cefixime-Sorbitol MacConkey) that include 3 isolates from cow’s milk (11%), 3 isolates from she-camel’s milk (11%), two isolates from goat’s milk (7.4%) and 7 isolates from fermented raw milk samples (26%), isolates from fresh locally made soft cheeses (Maasora and Ricotta) were 9 (33%) and 3 (11%), respectively, while none of the ice cream samples revealed any growth. However, out of these 27 isolates, only 11 were confirmed to be E. coli by partial sequencing of 16S rDNA and E. coli O157 Latex agglutination test. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that majority of local E. coli isolates were related to E. coli O157:H7 FRIK944 strain. Conclusion: These results can be used for further studies on EHEC O157 as an emerging foodborne pathogen and its role in human infection in Libya.
Ibrahim Eldaghayes(11-2016)
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Caprine Coccidiosis: An outbreak in the Green Mountain in Libya

This study involved a herd consisting of 200 goats in Green Mountain area, suffering from decrease in weight gain, bloody diarrhoea and severe anaemia and in some cases death within few days. Generally, there was no response to the treatment with antibiotics, anthelmentics and multivitamins. The last animal that died was submitted for post-mortem examination. The disease affecting the herd was diagnosed as coccidiosis. This is the first report of caprine coccidiosis in the Green Mountain Area in Libya.
Ibrahim Eldaghayes(6-2015)
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Residual evaluation of oxytetracycline in camel edible tissues in Tripoli region, Libya

The deleterious effects of the residues of antibacterial drugs have been considered as one of the most serious problems in the world on the basis of their importance in both veterinary and human fields. Therefore, the present study was planned out to evaluate the residual levels of oxytetracycline in camel tissues in Tripoli area in Libya. Forty samples of slaughtered camel's tissues (10 of muscle, 10 of liver, 10 of kidney, and 10 of fat) were collected from different carcasses at different slaughter houses in Tripoli districts. The samples were homogenized, extracted and residual concentrations of oxytetracycline have been measured using liquid chromatography-Mass spectroscopy (LC-MS) technique and oxytetracycline standard. Oxytetracycline residues have been detected in 60% in muscle, 80% in liver, 90% in kidney and 70% in fat samples. The samples, although positive, yet decided acceptable as the detected levels were less than that were regulated by Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC) for oxytetracycline maximal residual levels (100, 300, 600 and 100 μg/Kg muscle, liver, kidney or fat, respectively). The authors recommended avoiding irrational use of oxytetracycline in veterinary practice and camel in particular; and sticking to the withdrawal time regulated and labelled for drugs used in therapy among veterinary personnel, organizations, and governmental agencies in Libya.
Ibrahim Eldaghayes(9-2015)
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Isolation and molecular identification of Vibrio spp. by sequencing of 16S rDNA from seafood, meat and meat products in Libya

The genus Vibrio includes several food-borne pathogens that cause a spectrum of clinical conditions including septicemia, cholera and milder forms of gastroenteritis. Several Vibrio spp. are commonly associated with food-borne transmission including Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahemolyticus, and Vibrio vulnificus. Microbiological analysis for enumeration and isolation of Vibrio spp. were carried out for a total of 93 samples of seafood, meat and meat products from different geographic localities in Libya (Tripoli, Regdalin, Janzour and Tobruk). Vibrio spp. were detected by conventional cultural and molecular method using PCR and sequencing of 16S rDNA. Out of the 93 cultured samples only 48 (51.6%) yielded colonies on Thiosulfate Citrate Bile Salt agar (TCBS) with culture characteristics of Vibrio spp. More than half (n=27) of processed seafood samples (n=46) yielded colonies on TCBS, while only 44.6% of samples of meat and meat products showed colonies on TCBS. Among cultured seafood samples, the highest bacterial count was recorded in clam with a count of 3.8 х104 CFU\g. Chicken burger samples showed the highest bacterial count with 6.5 х104 CFU\g. Molecular analysis of the isolates obtained in this study, showed that 11 samples out of 48 (22.9%) were Vibrio spp. Vibrio parahemolyticus was isolated from camel meat for the first time. This study is an initial step to provide a baseline for future molecular research targeting Vibrio spp. foodborne illnesses. This data will be used to provide information on the magnitude of such pathogens in Libyan seafood, meat and meat products.
Ibrahim Eldaghayes(3-2016)
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Characterization of Avian Influenza and Newcastle Disease Viruses from Poultry in Libya

On March 2013, the Libyan poultry industry faced severe outbreaks due to mixed infections of APMV-1 (Newcastle disease) and low pathogenic avian influenza (AI) of the H9N2 subtype which were causing high mortality and great economic losses. APMV-1 and H9N2 were isolated and characterized. Genetic sequencing of the APMV-1/chicken/Libya/13VIR/7225-1/2013 isolate revealed the presence of a velogenic APMV-1 belonging to lineage 5 (GRRRQKR*F Lin.5) or genotype VII in class II, according to the nomenclature in use. Three AI viruses of the H9N2 subtype, namely A/avian/Libya/13VIR7225-2/2013, A/avian/Libya/13VIR7225-3/2013, and A/avian/Libya/13VIR7225-5/2013, were isolated and found to belong to the G1 lineage. Analysis of amino acid sequences showed that the analyzed H9N2 viruses contained the amino acid Leu at position 226 (H3 numbering) at the receptor binding site of the HA, responsible for human virus-like receptor specificity. On March 2014, an outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus of the H5N1 subtype was diagnosed in a backyard poultry farm in an eastern region of Libya. The H5N1 isolate (A/chicken/Libya/14VIR2749-16/2014) was detected by real time RT-PCR (rRTPCR). Genetic characterization of the HA gene revealed that the identified subtype was highly pathogenic, belonged to the 2.2.1 lineage, and clustered with recent Egyptian viruses. This study revealed the presence of a velogenic APMV-1 genotype and of two influenza subtypes, namely HPAI H5N1 and H9N2, which are of major interest for public and animal health. Considering these findings, more investigations must be undertaken to establish and implement adequate influenza surveillance programs; this would allow better study of the epidemiology of APMV-1 genotype VII in Libya and evaluation of the current vaccination strategies.
Ibrahim Eldaghayes(5-2015)
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Melanoacanthoma in a Dog: A Case Report

A cutaneous melanoacanthoma on the forehead of a 5-year-old male mongrel dog was characterized by the presence of two populations of neoplastic cells: epithelial and melanocytic. The epithelial component consisted of nests of well-differentiated stratified squamous epithelium closely associated with neoplastic melanocytes. According to our survey, three cases of this rare pigmented skin neoplasm of the dog have been published. We present here the histological features of the fourth case of Melanoacanthoma in dogs. This report confirms the benign nature of this tumor and adds to the data that will help determine predilections of age, breed, sex and site of its occurrence.
Ibrahim Eldaghayes(4-2014)
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Molecular Detection and Characterization of Infectious Bronchitis Virus from Libya

Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a very dynamic and evolving virus, causing major economic losses to the global poultry industry. Recently, the Libyan poultry industry faced severe outbreak of respiratory distress associated with high mortality and dramatic drop in egg production. Tracheal and cloacal swabs were analyzed for several poultry viruses. IBV was detected using SYBR Green I real-time PCR detection based on the nucleocapsid (N) gene. Sequence analysis of the partial N gene indicated high similarity (~94%) to IBV strain 3382/06 that was isolated from Taiwan. Even though the IBV strain 3382/06 is more similar to that of the Mass type H120, the isolate has been implicated associated with intertypic recombinant of 3 putative parental IBV strains namely H120, Taiwan strain 1171/92 and China strain CK/CH/LDL/97I. Complete sequencing and antigenicity studies of the Libya IBV strains are currently underway to determine the evolution of the virus and its importance in vaccine induced immunity. In this paper we documented for the first time the presence of possibly variant IBV strain from Libya which required dramatic change in vaccination program.
Ibrahim Eldaghayes(12-2013)
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An outbreak of gout was investigated in a growing layers farm of 45000 birds located in Tripoli, Libya. Mortality was commenced at 39 days-old reaching to a total of 489 birds within 10 days. Post mortem was conducted and kidney tissue samples were fixed in 10% neutral formalin prior to processing. Feed samples were sent to the Animal Nutrition Department for analysis which revealed 23.47% crude protein and 3.5% calcium. Gross lesions comprised of deposition of chalky white material covering the pericardium and enlarged kidneys with necrotic foci, hemorrhage and nephrosis. Most of birds showed swollen ureter of one or both sides. Histopathologically, severe damage of tubules characterized by moderate to severe tubular dilation and necrosis and central bluish gouty deposition surrounded by radiations of needle like urate crystals followed by granulomatous reaction of lymphocytes, macrophages and fibroblasts. The collecting renal tubules, urinephric ducts and ureters were also filled by gouty deposits with epithelial hyperplastic changes and chronic inflammatory cellular reaction in their walls. The interstitial tissue showed edema, congestion, hemorrhage and lymphomononuclear cell infiltration. This gout outbreak in growing layers is attributed to high concentration of crude protein and calcium in diet.
Ibrahim Eldaghayes(1-2010)
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Study on Grouper fish mortality phenomenon at the east costal Libyan area of the Mediterranean Sea with reference to bacteriological and parasitological examinations

Grouper fish mortality at the East Cost Libyan area of the Mediterranean Sea is one of the major problems encountered at autumn season starting from October. Sudden environmental changes associated with water pollution were recorded. Adult fish especially the grouper types were affected. This phenomenon was previously recorded in Libya at 1985. The present study was carried out to demonstrate the most prevalent isolates that may lead to this phenomenon. It was found that the gram negative oxidase positive bacterial group (Pasteurella, Vibrio and Aeromonas spp.) were the most isolated bacteria with high incidence refers especially to Pasteurella piscicida with an incidence of 64%. Black or metallic colour cysts (Microspordiosis, Glugea spp. and Plistophora spp.) representing spores or larvae of this parasite were observed on the visceral organs and abdominal cavity. Other parasites included larval stages of Contracaecum spp. and Gonapodasmius epinepheli (Didymozoid digenes). The clinical and postmortem lesions were mostly characterized by unilateral or bilateral corneal opacity and haemorrhagic spots on the skin with ulcer formation in some cases. Abdominal distension and anal prolaps were also recorded. All the internal organs were congested. The swim bladder was greatly swollen and filled with gas.
Ibrahim Eldaghayes(9-2011)
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First Report on Pelger-Huet Anomaly in a Male Basenji Dog in Libya

Pelger-Huet (P-H) anomaly is a benign congenital anomaly of leukocytes, characterized by nuclear hyposegmentation of granulocytes. Patients with heterozygous form of P-H anomaly are not immunodeficient and not predisposed to infection. In this study, P-H anomaly has been detected during a routine blood examination conducted on a clinically normal five years old male Basenji dog. Nuclear hyposegmentation of neutrophils with mature coarse chromatin pattern was noticed. As the animal was in a good health and all other blood parameters were within normal reference range, P-H anomaly was suspected. Acquired, pseudo P-H anomaly was excluded by detecting the same unique nuclear pattern in three successive blood samples collected at month intervals. Nuclear morphology was variable as dumbbell shaped, peanut shaped, band, round or bilobed forms were mostly detected in the neutrophils. It is the first report for this anomaly in Libya.
Ibrahim Eldaghayes(9-2010)
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First report on avian tuberculosis in pigeon in Tripoli, Libya

This report describes an avian mycobacteriosis in pigeon. An adult female pigeon (two years old) was brought for post-mortem examination on the same day of expiry. Granulomatous nodular lesions of various sizes with yellow to grey colours were found in the internal organs. Tuberculous lesions were observed in the spleen and intestine. Mycobacterial infection was confirmed by post-mortem examination and by detection of acid-fast bacilli in these granulomatous nodular lesions. This is the first report of avian tuberculosis in pigeons in Libya.
Ibrahim Eldaghayes(12-2012)
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Outbreaks of Foot-and-Mouth Disease in Libya and Saudi Arabia During 2013 Due to an Exotic O/ME-SA/Ind-2001 Lineage Virus

Foot-and-mouth disease viruses are often restricted to specific geographical regions and spread to new areas may lead to significant epidemics. Phylogenetic analysis of sequences of the VP1 genome region of recent outbreak viruses from Libya and Saudi Arabia has revealed a lineage, O-Ind-2001, normally found in the Indian subcontinent. This paper describes the characterization of field viruses collected from these cases and provides information about a new real-time RT-PCR assay that can be used to detect viruses from this lineage and discriminate them from other endemic FMD viruses that are co-circulating in North Africa and western Eurasia.
Ibrahim Eldaghayes(12-2014)
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Ovine paratuberculosis: a confirmed case of Johne's disease in Libya

Paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) was suspected in a herd of approximately 033 sheep after weight loss and scouring had increased in adult animals despite repeated treatment with anthelmintics, antibiotics, multivitamins and minerals. The herd is located near Tarhouna city. Herd history revealed that a total of 60 ewes showed clinical symptoms and deaths during the last two years. The last case that we attended was submitted to the National Center of Animal Health (NCAH) for a detailed laboratory examination. Gross pathological and histological examination of tissue samples revealed results that were highly comparable with Johne's disease. A definitive diagnosis was made only by histopathological identification of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis in the intestines using Ziehl-Neelsen stain. This is the first documented case of M. paratuberculosis in sheep in Libya.
Ibrahim Eldaghayes(11-2013)
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Fowlpox virus as a recombinant vaccine vector for use in mammals and poultry

Live vaccines against fowlpox virus, which causes moderate pathology in poultry and is the type species of the Avipoxvirus genus, were developed in the 1920s. Development of recombinant fowlpox virus vector vaccines began in the 1980s, for use not only in poultry, but also in mammals including humans. In common with other avipoxviruses, such as canarypox virus, fowlpox virus enters mammalian cells and expresses proteins, but replicates abortively. The use of fowlpox virus as a safe vehicle for expression of foreign antigens and host immunomodulators, is being evaluated in numerous clinical trials of vaccines against cancer, malaria, tuberculosis and AIDS, notably in heterologous prime–boost regimens. In this article, technical approaches to, and issues surrounding, the use of fowlpox virus as a recombinant vaccine vector in poultry and mammals are reviewed.
Ibrahim Eldaghayes(1-2014)
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Occurrence and antibiogram of multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica isolated from dairy products in Libya

Background and Aim: Foodborne illnesses are a serious challenge to human health and the economic sector. For example, salmonellosis remains a burden in developed and developing nations. Rapid and reliable molecular methods to identify Salmonella strains are essential for minimizing human infection. This study aimed to identify Salmonella spp. in raw milk and dairy products using conventional and molecular techniques and to test the antibiotic susceptibility of the isolated strains. Materials and Methods: One hundred and thirty-one milk and dairy product samples were randomly collected from different localities in Libya. Samples were examined for the presence of Salmonella by conventional culture techniques, including cultivation in Rappaport-Vassiliadis broth and streaking on xylose lysine deoxycholate agar. Identification also used polymerase chain reaction and partial sequencing of 16S rDNA. Twenty-four antibiotics were used for the examination of antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella spp. isolates with the agar disk diffusion method (Kirby–Bauer technique). Multi-antibiotic resistance index and antibiotic resistance index (ARI)for Salmonella enterica isolates were calculated. Results: Twenty-one of 131 samples (16%) were positive for Salmonella spp. recovered from 9 (16%), 2 (11%), 4 (22.2%), and 6 (46%) samples of raw cow milk, fermented raw milk, and fresh locally made soft cheeses, Maasora and Ricotta), respectively. Samples of ice cream, milk powder, and infant formula showed no Salmonella spp. contamination. Only 9 of 21 (42.8%) isolates were confirmed as S. enterica by partial sequence 16S rDNA analysis. All isolates were resistant to amoxycillin, bacitracin, penicillin G, lincomycin, vancomycin, clindamycin, and cloxacillin with an ARI of 0.042. In contrast, all tested strains were sensitive to levofloxacin, doxycycline, and ciprofloxacin. In addition, all of the tested isolates (100%) were resistant to more than one antibiotic. Conclusion: This study demonstrated the applicability of molecular techniques, compared with conventional methods, as preferable for the identification of Salmonella in milk and dairy products and thus reduction of milk-borne transmission to the consumers. From the view of public health, isolation and identification of Salmonella multidrug-resistant strains from raw cow's milk and locally prepared dairy products sold in the Libyan markets indicate the need to improve the handling and processing of milk and dairy products to minimize the prevalence of Salmonella, one of the most important foodborne microorganisms that cause food poisoning.
Ibrahim Eldaghayes(5-2022)
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Identification of diffusion routes of O/EA-3 topotype of foot-and-mouth disease virus in Africa and Western Asia between 1974 and 2019 – a phylogeographic analysis

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) affects the livestock industry and socioeconomic sustainability of many African countries. The success of FMD control programs in Africa depends largely on understanding the dynamics of FMD virus (FMDV) spread. In light of the recent outbreaks of FMD that affected the North-Western African countries in 2018 and 2019, we investigated the evolutionary phylodynamics of the causative serotype O viral strains all belonging to the East-Africa 3 topotype (O/EA-3). We analyzed a total of 489 sequences encoding the FMDV VP1 genome region generated from samples collected from 25 African and Western Asian countries between 1974 and 2019. Using Bayesian evolutionary models on genomic and epidemiological data, we inferred the routes of introduction and migration of the FMDV O/EA-3 topotype at the inter-regional scale. We inferred a mean substitution rate of 6.64 × 10−3 nt/site/year and we predicted that the most recent common ancestor for our panel of samples circulated between February 1967 and November 1973 in Yemen, likely reflecting the epidemiological situation in under sampled cattle-exporting East African countries. Our study also reinforces the role previously described of Sudan and South Sudan as a frequent source of FMDVs spread. In particular, we identified two transboundary routes of O/EA-3 diffusion: the first from Sudan to North-East Africa, and from the latter into Israel and Palestine AT; a second from Sudan to Nigeria, Cameroon, and from there to further into West and North-West Africa. This study highlights the necessity to reinforce surveillance at an inter-regional scale in Africa and Western Asia, in particular along the identified migration routes for the implementation of efficient control measures in the fight against FMD.
Ibrahim Eldaghayes(4-2022)
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Exploiting epidemiological data to understand the epidemiology and factors that influence COVID-19 pandemic in Libya Mahmoud AS, Dayhum AS, Rayes AA, Annajar BB, Eldaghayes IM. Exploiting epidemiological data to understand the epidemiology and factors that influence COVID-19 pandemic in Libya. World J Virol 2021; 10(4): 156-167 [PMID: 34367931 DOI: 10.5501/wjv.v10.i4.156]

There were only 75 confirmed cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) reported in Libya by the National Center for Disease Control during the first two months following the first confirmed case on 24 March 2020. However, there was dramatic increase in positive cases from June to now; as of 19 November 2020, approximately 357940 samples have been tested by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and the results have revealed a total number of 76808 confirmed cases, 47587 recovered cases and 1068 deaths. The case fatality ratio was estimated to be 1.40%, and the mortality rate was estimated to be 15.90 in 100000 people. The epidemiological situation markedly changed from mid-July to the beginning of August, and the country proceeded to the cluster phase. COVID-19 has spread in almost all Libyan cities, and this reflects the high transmission rate of the virus at the regional level with the highest positivity rates, at an average of 14.54%. Apparently, there is an underestimation of the actual number of COVID-19 cases due to the low testing capacity. Consequently, the Libyan health authority needs to initiate a large-scale case-screening process and enforce testing capacities and contact testing within the time frame, which is not an easy task. Advisably, the Libyan health authority should improve the public health capacities and conduct strict hygienic measures among the societies and vaccinate as many people against COVID-19 to minimize both the case fatality ratio and socio-economic impacts of the pandemic in Libya.
Ibrahim Eldaghayes(7-2021)
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The One Health concept for the threat of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 to marine ecosystems

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a global health threat. This virus is the causative agent for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Pandemic prevention is best addressed through an integrated One Health (OH) approach. Understanding zoonotic pathogen fatality and spillover from wildlife to humans are effective for controlling and preventing zoonotic outbreaks. The OH concept depends on the interface of humans, animals, and their environment. Collaboration among veterinary medicine, public health workers and clinicians, and veterinary public health is necessary for rapid response to emerging zoonotic pathogens. SARS-CoV-2 affects aquatic environments, primarily through untreated sewage. Patients with COVID-19 discharge the virus in urine and feces into residential wastewater. Thus, marine organisms may be infected with SARS-CoV-2 by the subsequent discharge of partially treated or untreated wastewater to marine waters. Viral loads can be monitored in sewage and surface waters. Furthermore, shellfish are vulnerable to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Filter-feeding organisms might be monitored to protect consumers. Finally, the stability of SARS-CoV-2 to various environmental factors aids in viral studies. This article highlights the presence and survival of SARS-CoV-2 in the marine environment and its potential to enter marine ecosystems through wastewater. Furthermore, the OH approach is discussed for improving readiness for successive outbreaks. This review analyzes information from public health and epidemiological monitoring tools to control COVID-19 transmission.
Ibrahim Eldaghayes(6-2022)
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