Dr. AbdulrhmanAlrtib

Department of Anatomy, Histology & Embryology Faculty of Vet Medicine

Full name

Dr. Abdulrhman Mohamed Salah Alrtib


Doctor of Phiosophy

Academic Rank

Associate Professor


Abdulrhman Alrtib is one of the staff members at the department of 10 faculty of 6. He is working as an associate prof. He teaches several subjects in his major and has several publications in the field of his interest.

Contact Information


Doctor of Phiosophy

vet Anatomy
Melbourne Uni
2 ,2014

Master degree

vet Anatomy
Melbourne Uni
9 ,2009

Bachelor Degree

Tripoli Uni
10 ,2001


Morphometrical Study of Bony Elements of the Forelimb Fetlock Joints in Horses

There are many reports describing fractures in the bony elements of the equine fetlock joint and a few of these discuss possible relationships of these fractures to the mechanical loading of these bones. The likelihood of fracture must be related to the size and shape of bones involved, but information concerning the normal range in size and shape of these bones in horses is lacking. This study aimed to identify morphometrical variations of these bones within different groups of horses. Right and left metacarpal, proximal phalangeal and proximal sesamoid bones were collected from 10 Thoroughbreds (TB), five Standardbreds (SB) and eight Ponies (P) euthanized for non-orthopaedic reasons. All bones were boiled, cleaned and dried. Dimensional parameters were measured using a custom-built apparatus, calliper and plastic tape. The width and depth of the medial condyles of Mc3 were greater than the lateral condyles in all groups. The length to the lateral condyle was greater than the length to the medial condyle of Mc3, and the lengths of the lateral sides of the Mc3 and P1 bones were greater than the lengths of the medial sides in both forelimbs of all groups. The lateral sesamoids were similar to, or larger than, the medial sesamoids in all dimensions. There were some morphometrical variations in the bony elements of the equine fetlock joints in all groups.
Abdulrhman Mohamed Salah Alrtib, C J Philip, Aiman Hussein Saleh Oheida, Helen M S Davies(4-2012)
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Fetlock Parameters Development on Dorsopalmar Radiographs in the Equine Forelimb

Several reports have discussed possible bony morphological causes of fetlock pathology but without relating them to its morphometry. Radiographic measurement is widely used in constructing numerical databases of bone morphometry. Such measurements would not be reliable unless all factors affecting the radiographs were considered. Therefore, this study aimed to establish a specific dorsopalmar view (DP) for fetlock radiographic measurements, and then to develop reliable and repeatable fetlock parameters that represent fetlock conformation on those DP radiographs. Ten cadaveric forelimbs from ten adult horses were cut at the distal third of the radius and mounted in a normal posture for DP radiography. Specific features on fetlock bones were used as landmarks to identify the DP at zero degrees. Other bony features were selected as landmarks for developing fetlock parameters on these radiographs. Twenty-seven parameters were designed in the form of angles (12) and ratios (15). The repeatability and consistency of each parameter was tested. A specific fetlock DP view was determined at zero degrees based on certain landmarks. All angular and ratio parameters showed high reliability and consistency in their measurements. The established parameters provide an opportunity to test the relationship between fetlock morphometrics and performance, or the likelihood of certain pathologies.
Abdulrhman Mohamed Salah Alrtib, Aiman Hussein Saleh Oheida, Mohamed Hamrouni S. Abushhiwa, Helen M S Davies(3-2019)
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Clinical, radiological, and pathological findings of primary nasal osteosarcoma in a Libyan cat

Background: Although bone tumors are common pathologies in companion animals, limited reports describe nasal osteosarcoma (OSA) in cats. Case description: A case of nasal OSA in a local Libyan cat was admitted to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tripoli-Libya, with nasal swelling and discharges and facial deformity. The radiological findings revealed nasal osteolysis with the absence of evidence of lung metastasis. In addition, fungal growth was not identified in microbiological culture. Furthermore, the pathological examination has grossly revealed a destructed nasal bone due to the presence of a tumor mass, with a mucohemorrhagic nasal discharge and absence of metastasis. OSA was confirmed histopathologically. Conclusion: This report presents the clinical, radiological, and pathological findings of a primary nasal OSA in a Libyan cat with no tumor metastasis to other body organs.
Mohamed Hamrouni S. Abushhiwa, Seham AL-Abed Hassan AL-Azreg, ٍٍSamer Khalifa Khalil Tmumen, Abdulrhman Mohamed Salah Alrtib, Abdulkareem Khalifa Ali Elbaz, Mahir Kubba, Al-Asayed R. Al-Attar, Emad M R Bennour(12-2019)
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Radiographic Comparison of Carpal Morphometry in Thoroughbred and Standardbred Race horses

Carpal conformation is thought to contribute to the frequency of carpal pathology so non-invasive measurement of carpal morphometry would be useful to identify joints at risk. However, there are scant radiographic morphometrical details for the carpals of Thoroughbred (TB) and Standardbred (SB) racehorses even though these breeds differ in the incidence of carpal damage. This study aimed to identify morphometrical similarities and differences in carpal conformation in TB and SB. Thirty carpal dorsopalmar radiographs (DP) were collected from 15 TB and 15 SB. All DP radiographs were at zero degrees or within the acceptable range of rotation. Twelve carpal radiographic parameters were selected and measured on each radiograph. Statistical analysis found significant differences in four carpal parameters. These parameters revealed that the middle carpal joint in SB was significantly more angled distomedially whereas the radial distal metaphysis showed a greater distolateral inclination in TB. The radiocarpal and the carpometacarpal articulations exhibited common features in the two groups of horses. These carpal traits in TB and SB highlight their potential association with loading distribution and pathology. Measuring carpi from untrained and injured horses is necessary to establish breed specific features for the ideal carpal conformation in each of these breeds.
Aiman Hussein Saleh Oheida, Abdulrhman Mohamed Salah Alrtib, Aiman Abdulghader Salim Shalgum, Mansur Ennuri Moftah Shmela, Mohamed A Marzok, Helen M S Davies(4-2019)
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Relative Density of The Bony Components of The Fetlock Joint in Thoroughbreds

The forelimb fetlock joint and its bony components are a common site of injury in racing horses. We hypothesized that the variations in relative density of these bones might correspond to their mechanical properties. This study aimed first to identify the relative density of third metacarpal bone (Mc3), proximal phalanx (P1) and proximal sesamoid bones (PSBs) of Thoroughbred race horses. Second, to determine whether there was any difference and/or similarity in the relative density between and within the bones. Bones from right and left forelimbs of 10 horses were collected and prepared by boiling and drying. Dry weight and volume for each bone were measured and the relative density was then calculated. Relative density of Mc3 was substantially greater than the other two bones with a mean of 1.7 ± 0.06. Relative density of P1 and PSBs showed a high similarity especially between P1 and the medial PSBs. Neither the comparisons between right and left sides nor between lateral and medial PSBs showed any significant differences. P1 had the most consistent relative density within right and left sides. Larger relative density in Mc3 and the similarity between P1 and PSBs presume a more important role of the bone mass on their properties than the volume.
Abdulrhman Mohamed Salah Alrtib, Aiman Hussein Saleh Oheida, Ali Omar Alarif Boker, Aiman Abdulghader Salim Shalgum, Helen M S Davies(12-2018)

Health adverse effects of formaldehyde exposure to students and staff in gross anatomy

Formaldehyde is an anxious gas used as a tissue preservative of cadavers in anatomy halls. Therefore, laboratory staff and students are at high risk of different clinical complications due to the continuous exposure to formaldehyde. The present questionnaire-based study evaluates the effects of formaldehyde exposure on veterinary students and staff in the anatomy gross dissection laboratory, University of Tripoli, Libya. A total of 104 students and 6 anatomy staff members completed a questionnaire of 24 questions related to the clinical symptoms observed after formaldehyde exposure and the answers were assessed using a six point (0-5) scale. Students had a high prevalence of nasal itching 78(75%), eyes burning 78(75%), excessive lacrimation 76(73%), eyes redness 60(58%), headache 64(62%) and respiratory distress 61(59%). Smoking and wearing glasses or gloves worsened many symptoms while wearing masks minimized other symptoms and male students were more affected than females. All anatomy staff members (100%) reported nasal itching, burning and congestion, eyes burning and redness, excessive lacrimation, cough and respiratory distress and less than that (83%) suffered from mouth dryness, headache, temporary loss of their ability to recognize the smell of formaldehyde and needed a physician assistance after the exposure to formaldehyde. The repeated exposure to formaldehyde in gross anatomy dissection has harmful effects on both students and staff member and finding alternative preservation methods, such as freezing, would be safer than using the formaldehyde. arabic 12 English 74
Fahima A Alnagar, Mansur Ennuri Moftah Shmela, , Abdulrhman Mohamed Salah Alrtib, , Fathia mahmoud Mohammad Ashour, Amal Omar Elarif Buker, Anwar Mustafa Abdalhadi Abdalmula(10-2015)

Successful Anatomical Access for Surgical Removing of the Distal Fracture of Splint Bones in Thoroughbred Horses (Case Study)

Poor performance in athletic horses due to musculoskeletal affections is very common in Libya. Two mature thoroughbred horses suffering from poor performance and history of moderate degree forelimb lameness were admitted to the Aswany Private Equine clinic in Tripoli, Libya. The study is aiming for presenting a simple, time effective, cost effective surgical procedure to treat distal simple splint bone fracture in thoroughbred horses. Horses were examined thoroughly for the common muscle, hoof, and tendons affections. A progressed unilateral left forelimb swelling involving the lateral distal part of the fourth metacarpal bones was noticed. Three radiographs were taken to each horse including latero- medial, dorsolateral-palmaromedial, and palmarolateral-dorsomedial views to assess both splint bones. The radiographs showed that there is a complete fracture involving the distal extremity (button) of the fourth metacarpal bones. Surgical excisions of the fractured part of the splint bones have been decided to treat these horses. To precisely locate the site of the bone fragments, 1.5 mm stainless steel wires were placed over the distal part of splint prior to taking the radiographs. The surgical sites were aseptically prepared, and the horses were then sedated via intravenous injection of xylazine at a dose rate of 1 mg/kg body weight. The site of surgical incision was infiltrated with 2% lidocaine. The bone fragments were then removed after performing the surgical incision. The sharp end at the distal end of the proximal part of the splint bone was then smoothening with a scissor. The surgical incisions were then routinely closed and the post-operative care and radiographs were taken. The surgical incision made complete healing within two weeks. Both horses were followed up for up to three years post-operation, and they did well compared to what has been done in other studies. We concluded that the surgical technique used to treat the two horses with splint bone fracture enrolled in the current study is a simple and effective procedure. arabic 19 English 106
Mohamed H. Abushhiwa, Osma K Sawesi, Khaled A. Milad, Aiman. A. Shalgum, Abdulrhman Mohamed Salah Alrtib(9-2019)


Front fetlock joint angle (FA) measurement might predict musculoskeletal injury. This study aimed to identify an accurate reliable tool, and develop a consistent method for measuring the FA. Fetlock centre of rotation was identified radiographically. Goniometer measurements were validated on ten vertically fixed post-mortem distal forelimbs by positioning the centre of rotation of the goniometer on the approximate centre of rotation of the joint for five measurements of each FA at three day intervals and one measurement by another person (rater B). Both FA’s of fourteen sound horses standing squarely on a concrete floor were repeated before and after lifting the contralateral limb, which was flexed at the carpus and held at the same level as the carpus of the standing limb. Consistency of measurements was assessed using both fetlock joints of five horses standing squarely on a concrete floor measured six times in random order and then with the contralateral limb lifted using both front fetlocks of eight horses measured five times in random order. The repeatability coefficient was calculated with WinPepi v10.5 software. The centre of rotation was on or around the eminence of the lateral collateral ligament. The repeatability coefficient of the goniometer validation was 4.7°. The mean FA for rater A and B were not significantly different (161.4° versus 162.9°). FA’s were significantly less after lifting the contralateral limbs (P
Abdulrhman M. Alrtib, Helen M S Davies(7-2012)

Patellar luxation in Hejazi goats

Background: Patellar luxation (PL) is a common orthopedic affection among farm and pet animals with mostly congenital (environmental and/or genetic) background. Aim: We report here the first observation of lateral PL in Hejazi goats bred in Libya. Methods: Five Hejazi goats aged between 4 months and 2 years with severe hind limb lameness were admitted to Al-Sorouh veterinary clinic in Tripoli during the period from 2016 to 2018. The goats were thoroughly examined clinically and radiographically. Two goats were surgically treated, and the other three cases were not because of either the cost limitation or expected poor prognosis. The surgical intervention involved femoral trochlear sulcoplasty, medial joint capsule imbrication, and tibial tuberosity transposition. Results: The clinical examination showed grade III–IV lateral PL. Radiologically, there were unilateral or bilateral, ventrocaudal, and dorsal PLs. Two cases were referred to surgical correction. One case almost restored the normal movement of stifle joint together with a good general status 1 year postsurgery. However, the surgical treatment was not effective in correcting the luxated patella in the second case. Conclusion: Lateral PL is common among orthopedic affections in Hejazi goats in Libya, and its surgical treatment provided a quite convenient approach. An association between inbreeding and the PL was suggested in those cases. arabic 4 English 29
Taher N. Elmeshreghi, Mansur Ennuri Moftah Shmela, Mouna Abdunnabi Abdunnabi Abdunnabi, Emad M R Bennour(6-2021)
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