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Rift valley fever in Africa with the emerging interest in Libya

Rift valley fever (RVF) is an acute vector-borne viral zoonotic disease of domestic and wild ruminants. The RVF virus (RVFV) belonging to the Phlebovirus genus of the Bunyaviridae family causes this disease. Studies have shown that mosquitoes are the vectors that transmit RVFV. Specifically, Aedes and Culex mosquito species are among the many vectors of this virus, which affects not only sheep, goats, buffalo, cattle, and camels but also human beings. Since the 30s of the last century, RVF struck Africa, and to a lesser extent, Asian continents, with subsequent episodes of epizootic, epidemic, and sporadic outbreaks. These outbreaks, therefore, resulted in the cumulative loss of thousands of human lives, thereby disrupting the livestock market or only those with seropositive cases. After that outbreak episode, RVF was not reported in Libya until January 13, 2020, where it was reported for the 1st time in a flock of sheep and goats in the southern region of the country. Although insufficient evidence to support RVF clinical cases among the confirmed seropositive animals exists, neither human cases nor death were reported in Libya. Yet, the overtime expansion of RVF kinetics in the Libyan neighborhoods, in addition to the instability and security vacuum experienced in the country, lack of outbreak preparedness, and the availability of suitable climatic and disease vector factors, makes this country a possible future scene candidate for RVF expansion. Urgently, strengthening veterinary services (VS) and laboratory diagnostic capacities, including improvement of monitoring and surveillance activity programs, should be implemented in areas at risk (where imported animals crossing borders from Libyan neighborhoods and competent vectors are found) at national, sub-national, and regional levels. The Libyan government should also implement a tripartite framework (one health approach) among the veterinary public health, public health authority, and environmental sanitation sectors to implement RVF surveillance protocols, along with an active partnership with competent international bodies (OIE, FAO, and WHO). Therefore, this review comprises the most updated data regarding the epidemiological situation of RVF infections and its socioeconomic impacts on African and Asian continents, and also emphasize the emerging interest of RVF in Libya
Abdusalam Sharef Mahmoud(12-2021)
Publisher's website

Sero-Prevalence Investigation of Peste Des Petits Ruminants (PPR) and Associated Risk Factors in Libya During 2015-2016

Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) is considered one of the most important transboundary animal diseases (TADs) with socio-economic impacts on national and international levels. During 2015-2016 a total of 690 serum samples were collected from unvaccinated domestic ruminants of which 555 sheep, and 135 goats representing teen provinces distributed in four Libyan branches (Green Mountain, Benghazi, West Mountain and Sabha). The sample were analysed at IZSAM, Teramo, Italy, by using competitive ELISA, IDvet innovative diagnostics (IDvet, 310 rue Louis Pasteur-34790 Grabels, France). The overall sero-prevalence rate (SPR) of PPR antibodies was estimated to be 41% (95% CL: 36% to 46%) among sheep and 39% (95% CL: 28% to 45%) among goat. A chi-square test was used to evaluate the probability of differences observed among SPR of infection. The results showed that the SPR of PPR was significantly (P= 0.015) higher in adult animals 41% (95% CL= 37%-46%) than in the young 24% (95% CL= 17%- 32%). The highest SPR 75% (95% CL= 61%-85%) was recorded in Sabha province (Southern Libya) which highlighted statistically difference (P= 0.00001). The preliminary results of the present study could be useful to better focus on specific area of Libya to improve understand and evaluate the risk factors for disease spreading and to plan disease control activities as requested by FAO/OIE (PPR Global Control and Eradication Strategy). arabic 19 English 100
Abdusalam Sharef Abdusalam Mahmoud(1-2020)
Publisher's website

Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices of COVID-19 Among Medical Staff Doctors at Tripoli University Teaching Hospitals

The Corona virus disease 19 (COVID-19) is a new global pandemic. World Health Organization (WHO) declared COVID-19 a public health emergency of international concern. Health Care Works (HCWs) are the primary sectors in contact with suspected patients. Thus, the knowledge, attitudes and practices of HCWs towards COVID-19 remain unclear. The objectives: To investigate the knowledge, attitudes and practices of Medical doctors about COVID-19 at Tripoli University Teaching Hospitals. Methods: This crosssectional survey was conducted from April 30 to 29 May, the week immediately after first case of COVID-19 reported in Libya. A pilot trail questionnaire was distributed and filled by taking the relevant information from medical staff doctors working at various medical and surgical units. The data coded according to variable and analysed by SPSS. Results: Of (250) participants, a total (100) of Medical staff doctors completed the surve\ (response rate 40%). The participants¶ qualification was (64%) MBBS, (14%) Master degree, (16%) PhD and (6%) professors. the mean age 35 years. (42%) were male and (58%) female participants. Most of the medical staff doctors (70%) were GPs, (22%) were specialists, (6%) were internship doctors and (2%) were consultants. Questionnaire survey revealed that (18%) of the respondents reported working experience of >20 years. The survey was considered if the Medical doctor in frontline healthcare workers (FLHCWs), our results demonstrate that, only 30% of medical staff doctors was provided care of COVID-19 patients while 70% was not in the FLHCWs. Most participants (79%) reported that no specific treatment of COVID-19. A significant proportion of medical doctors (68%) had good knowledge of the transmission, diagnostic method & prevention of COVID-19. According to the case report definition of WHO and ECDC, the survey results showed (69%) of the respondents reported that, the test should be repeated if the first RT-PCR results were negative from the patient represent the typical clinical symptoms of COVID-19. Our questionnaire survey revealed that (68%) of the medical staff doctors¶ participants agree that wearing face masks prevent the infection while (32%) reported that wearing face masks could not prevent the infection. Overall, Medical staff doctors in Tripoli University Teaching Hospital showed expected level of knowledge and attitudes about COVID-19. The findings survey suggests that due to the limited medical staff doctor¶s representative, it must be cautious when generalizing these findings to other medical doctors residing in other regions of the country. As intentional threat of COVID-19 continuous to emerge, the results survey highlights the importance of continuous health educational programs from the government and national health authorities that well improve and updated knowledge of the HCWs regarding COVID-19, which also result in increasing their attitudes and practices towards COVID-19. Further studies are warranted to confirm our findings. arabic 17 English 99
ِAbdusalam Sharef (12-2020)
Publisher's website

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