### Description

The Department of Physics offers a study program for obtaining the first university degree (bachelor's degree) in a flexible manner that enables the student to choose courses and the appropriate time frame for his abilities and capabilities. This program has been designed to be sequential, coherent and methodologically flexible, with the opportunity for the student to choose a set of elective courses to suit his interests and goals.

### Objectives

1. Providing students with a wide range of basic concepts and theories in physics and basic sciences.

2. Providing national institutions with distinguished graduates capable of responding to the requirements of the labor market through the program’s educational and research plans.

3. Providing graduates with the skills to think creatively and conduct scientific research.

4. Develop students’ knowledge and skills to solve a wide range of physics problems and apply relevant information technology and its applications effectively.

5. Developing students’ abilities by laying the foundations for self-learning.

### Outcomes

By the end of studying the physics program courses, the graduate must have acquired the skills and knowledge and be able to:

1. Formulates physical phenomena mathematically.

2. Manages experiments, research, and scientific projects.

3. Compares theoretically predicted values with experimentally measured results.

4. He uses scientific, critical, and innovative thinking and problem-solving methods in his specialization.

5. He uses information technology in scientific research and his future profession.

6. Communicates, works, and cooperates in a team.

### Certificate Rewarded

Bachelor's degree in Physics

### Entry Reuirements

1- The student is required to obtain a secondary school certificate, scientific section

2- That his grade should not be less than the specified percentage issued by the Preliminary General Stage Committee in the year in which the student wishes to register.

3 - A student transferring from other academic departments in the same college can be accepted according to the study and examination regulations in force at the college.

4 - A student transferring from other universities can be accepted according to the study regulations and examinations in force at the college.

5 - New students are accepted according to the absorptive capacity that is discussed in the department council every beginning of the semester and according to the number of graduates and defaulters, the need of the local market, the results and rates of success in the secondary certificate, and the capabilities available in the department in terms of the number of professors, the number of halls, and the technical assistance capabilities.

### Study Plan

The Bachelor in Physics prepares students to qualify for Bachelor in Physics. The student studies several subjects which have been carefully chosen in this major to cover its different aspects.

It comprises 8 Semesters of study, in which the student will study a total of 141 units, which include 13 units of general subjects, and 93 major units, 4 of elective units. In addition to a final project in the student's major.

Study plan for this program is shown below:

### 1st Semester

Code | Title | Credits | Course Type | Prerequisite |
---|

AR051 | Arabic language 1 | 02 | University requirement | + |

Highlighting the beauty of the Arabic language and revealing the elements of originality and strength that are full of it, so that students increase their passion and interest in it.Close contact with our literary heritage and make students aware of its originality, diversity and comprehensiveness.Refine students' talents and develop their ability to understand the language, grammar, morphology and correct Arabic writing.Training students to write their scientific research, reports, and notes in correct writing, free of linguistic, stylistic, and spelling errors, and to facilitate the translation of many specialized texts.

AT111 | Introduction to Atmospheric Science | 03 | Compulsory | + |

The general objectives of the course are written in the form of outputs that the student is supposed to acquire after successfully completing the course:- Introducing meteorology and its many branches with different characteristics, whether basic or applied.- Understanding the gaseous and non-gaseous components of the atmosphere, their percentage, and their importance in the process of the Earth's thermal balance, and understanding the four layers of the atmosphere, with a focus on the troposphere layer close to the Earth's surface.- Study the various elements of the atmosphere such as: atmospheric pressure, air density, temperature, water vapor with an understanding of the process of thermal equilibrium, the extent of daily change in temperature, the rate of dry self-enthalpy and also the rate of saturated autoenthalpy.- Knowledge of the stability and instability of the atmosphere through the general theory of stability and also the relationship of the rate of thermal decrease of the rising air and the rate of thermal decrease of the prevailing atmosphere with the stability of the atmosphere. Geostrophic winds, downhill winds, and the fog phenomenon.

CS100 | Programming Principles | 04 | General | + |

1. Introducing the steps to solve the problem and the methods of solving it using textual algorithms and flowcharts, developing the ability to think logically to solve problems, and identifying numerical systems and converting between them.2. Introduction to the basics and components of Python language programs and how to convert text algorithms or flowcharts into Python programs3. Raising the student's programming level by identifying functions and menus and how to detect errors.

EL101 | English Language 1 | 02 | University requirement | + |

English courses specially designed for students who choose to study at the faculty of Basic Sciences. The principle objectives for both courses is to enable students use English for scientific. They provide students with practice on sentence patterns, structural words as well as non-structural vocabulary which are common to all scientific branches. The material incorporated in these courses intend to give students a good opportunity to read scientific texts, do grammar exercises and work on scientific terminology.

MA100 | General Mathematics І | 04 | General | + |

The general objectives of the course in the form of outputs that the student is supposed to acquire after successful completion of the course are:· Recognize the concepts, terms, principles and laws of Sport1.· Know the functions and their types and apply algebraic operations to them.· Interpret the concept of the end and distinguish between its types and use appropriate theories to solve problems and link them to communication.· Providing the student with the concept of differentiation and using its rules and types to derive functions and using its applications to draw functions.

ST101 | Introduction to statistics | 04 | Compulsory | + |

PH110 | General Physics І (Electricity ) | 03 | Compulsory | + |

This course is concerned with knowing the foundations and concepts of electrostatics and translating these concepts into mathematical laws and relationships by covering a range of topics represented in Coulomb’s law, electric field strength, Gauss’s law, capacitors, Ohm’s law, electric current circuits, and their analysis methods.

### 2nd Semester

Code | Title | Credits | Course Type | Prerequisite |
---|

CH101 | General Chemistry 1 | 04 | Compulsory | + |

This course aims to:- Providing the student with general information on intangible numbers and understanding the use of chemical units for different measured quantities.-Familiarity with the concept of the atom in terms of atomic structure and the application of the laws of the atom-Understand the periodic table and name the elements and chemical compounds- Introducing the student to understanding oxidation and reduction and weighing equations in different ways

EL102 | English language 2 | 02 | University requirement | EL101 | + |

English are courses specially designed for students who choose to study at the faculty of Basic Sciences. The principle objectives for both courses is to enable students use English for scientific. They provide students with practice on sentence patterns, structural words as well as non-structural vocabulary which are common to all scientific branches. The material incorporated in these courses intend to give students a good opportunity to read scientific texts, do grammar exercises and work on scientific terminology.

MA102 | General Mathematics ІІ | 04 | General | + |

The general objectives of the course in the form of outputs that the student is supposed to acquire after successful completion of the course are:The student should be familiar with the concept of finite integration, its properties and the basic theorems for its calculation.The student should discuss the concept of unlimited integration and distinguish the different methods for his account.The student demonstrates the use of integration applications.The student interprets the meaning of defective integrals.

PH111 | General Physics II | 04 | Compulsory | + |

This course is designed to serve as an introductory physics course for general school students at the University of Tripoli. It begins with introducing the student to physics and its relationship to other basic sciences. This course introduces the basic concepts of the principles of classical mechanics through unit systems and the basics of mechanics from motion in one dimension to Newton’s laws, work, energy, potential energy and energy conservation.

### 3rd Semester

Code | Title | Credits | Course Type | Prerequisite |
---|

AR052 | Arabic language 2 | 02 | University requirement | AR051 | + |

Accustom the student to clear expressions of his ideas in pronunciation and writing and the good use of punctuation marks.Developing the student's literary taste so that he realizes the aesthetic aspects of speech styles, meanings and images.Develop the student's spelling and writing ability and skill so that he can write correctly in all respects.Identify the beauty of the Arabic language and literature, and that the student acquires the ability to study the branches of the Arabic language.

PH217 | Physics Lab ІІ (Mechanics & Properties of Matter) | 01 | Compulsory | PH111 PH210 | + |

The course contains many laboratory experiments that cover the physical basics of mechanics, heat, and laboratory measurements. It includes the measurement of physical parameters such as dimensions, temperature, pressure, viscosity, friction coefficient, and gravitational acceleration. The course also focuses on organizing the independent experiment, obtaining data, analyzing data, and preparing scientific reports.

PH215 | Physics Lab І (Heat, Electricity, Sound & Light) | 01 | Compulsory | PH110 PH112 PH210 | + |

This course includes several laboratory experiments that deal with the following physical topics: heat, the amount of heat, electric current, sound, some sound and light phenomena, and some optical phenomena.

PH213 | Electricity & Magnetism | 04 | Compulsory | PH110 PH112 | + |

This course aims to familiarize the student with the relationship between electricity and magnetism and link them to their applications during daily life by covering a range of topics such as magnetic field and force, Faraday's law, magnetic induction, Maxwell's equations, alternating current, reciprocal induction and Coupled circuits.

PH211 | Classical Mechanics І | 04 | Compulsory | PH111 | + |

This course aims to introduce the student to classical mechanics by covering a range of topics, such as identifying the center of mass of a system of bodies, as well as deducing the principle of conservation of linear momentum and how to apply it to study the movement of a system of fixed-mass and variable-mass particles, studying the issue of collision, identifying types of collision, and the relationship between impulse and quantity Motion and rotational motion around a fixed axis of rotation and a moving axis of rotation and the conclusion of Newton's second law of rotational motion as well as the application of the principle of conservation of energy to the study of rotational motion and the definition of angular momentum and the study of the equilibrium of rigid bodies and the link between the concept of the center of mass and the center of gravity and simple harmonic motion and the system of mass and spring wire And the pendulums..

MA205 | Mathematics Ш | 04 | Compulsory | + |

The general objectives of the course in the form of outputs that the student is supposed to acquire after successful completion of the course are: · The student recognizes functions in more than one variable and their properties. · Discusses the differentiation of functions in more than one variable and its applications. · The student demonstrates the properties of binary and triple integration in different coordinates. · The student explains the convergence and divergence of series.

PH210 | General Physics III | 04 | Compulsory | + |

This course studies heat and the properties of matter, sound and light. It covers topics of temperature and thermometers, the zeroth law of thermodynamics and ideal gases, the amount of heat and thermal energy, elasticity, stress and strain, fluid mechanics, mechanical waves (transverse and longitudinal), electromagnetism and the resulting phenomena.

### 4th Semester

Code | Title | Credits | Course Type | Prerequisite |
---|

MA202 | Linear Algebra | 03 | General | + |

The general objectives of the course in the form of outputs that the student is supposed to acquire after successful completion of the course are:· The student discusses directional spaces and related abstract concepts.· The student is introduced to the algebraic concepts and terms of matrices and determinants and uses creative thinking and problem-solving methods to prove the proofs of linear transformations.· Identify the systems of linear equations and their applications.· Recognize the basis and dimension of directional spaces.

PH212 | Classical Mechanics ІІ | 03 | Compulsory | MA102 PH211 | + |

This course aims to familiarize the student with the elements of mechanics in an advanced way through studying the different types of motion; Such as movement in one dimension under the influence of variable forces (depending on time - speed - position), movement under the influence of central forces, gravitational forces, and rotational motion of rigid bodies.

PH214 | Electronics І | 03 | Compulsory | MA102 PH213 | + |

This course introduces the principles of electronics and covers various topics such as the electronic structure of atoms, pure and doped semiconductors, diodes, and transistors, and their properties. It introduces the student to the factors affecting electronic circuits, their properties, and ways to develop them, as well as the basics of designing and developing signal amplification circuits, and the electrical and optical properties of electronic materials.

MA209 | Ordinary Differential Equation 1 | 03 | Compulsory | MA203 | + |

The general objectives of the course in the form of outputs that the student is supposed to acquire after successful completion of the course are: · Recognize the basic concepts of an ordinary differential equation. · The student learns methods of solving equations of the first order and the problem of the initial value and ensuring the existence of the solution or not in certain circumstances. · The student acquires the ability to solve linear differential equations. · The student uses Laplace transformations to solve linear equations.

PH216 | Thermodynamics | 04 | Compulsory | MA102 PH210 | + |

This course provides the student with some definitions of the basic concepts, principles, terms and variables in thermodynamics as well as thermodynamic systems. Explain the concepts of work, heat, internal energy and heat capacity. It includes topics such as the first, second and third law of thermodynamics and its applications, the concept of entropy, reversible and irreversible processes, and thermodynamic cycles.

PH218 | Physics Lab ІІІ (AC Circuits) | 02 | Compulsory | PH213 PH215 | + |

This course contains, in general, experiments in electricity and magnetism. The focus is on studying and understanding alternating current and its electric circuits, as well as the practical application of what the student has learned of basic theoretical concepts about magnetism, such as the properties of the magnetic field and its connection to the electric current, and devices whose mechanism of action depends on the link between magnetism and electricity, such as inductors. and others.

### 5th Semester

Code | Title | Credits | Course Type | Prerequisite |
---|

PH317 | Modern Physics | 03 | Compulsory | PH211 PH213 | + |

This course provides an explanation of the basic concepts in modern physics such as the theory of relativity, wave behavior of particles, particle behavior of electromagnetic waves, and methods of interaction of photons with matter with an introduction to quantum mechanics.

PH321 | Electronic Lab | 02 | Compulsory | PH214 PH218 PH319 | + |

The course contains many laboratory experiments that cover the basic principles of electronic physics, such as studying the characteristics of diodes and zener diodes, studying the applications of diodes, characteristics of transistor, and study of logic gates..

PH313 | Optics | 04 | Compulsory | MA201 PH110 PH210 | + |

This course introduces principles of theories of optics, geometric optics, and physical optics. It covers a range of topics such as wave motion in one and three dimensions, plane waves, spherical waves, propagation of light: reflection, refraction, geometric optics, polarization, interference, diffraction, and optical devices.

MA301 | Complex Analysis 1 | 03 | Compulsory | MA203 | + |

The general objectives of the course in the form of outputs that the student is supposed to acquire after successful completion of the course are: · The student learns how to deal with complex numbers. · The student recognizes the limits, continuity, and differentiation of functions in the complex variable. · The student discusses the concepts of analytic, holomorphic and harmonic functions and their properties. · The student is introduced to non-algebraic and algebraic functions.

### 6th Semester

Code | Title | Credits | Course Type | Prerequisite |
---|

PH314 | Statistical Physics | 03 | Compulsory | PH216 | + |

This course introduces the physics student to the principles of statistical physics and covers many topics such as statistical methods and the distribution of velocities in Maxwell Boltzmann statistics and applications of Bose-Einstein statistics and Fermi-Dirac statistics.

MA307 | Partial Differential Equations | 03 | General | + |

The general objectives of the course in the form of outputs that the student is supposed to acquire after successful completion of the course are:· Recognize the basic concepts of an ordinary differential equation.· The student learns methods of solving equations of the first order and the problem of the initial value and ensuring the existence of the solution or not in certain circumstances.· The student acquires the ability to solve linear differential equations.· The student uses Laplace transformations to solve linear equations.

PH319 | Electronics ІІ | 02 | Compulsory | PH214 | + |

This course aims to introduce the student to the electronic models of the transistor and their impact on the amplification of the various signals, and to become familiar with the skills of connecting electronic circuits and analyzing them. As well as the ability to work on various electronic circuits, especially those of a research nature related to signal analysis, amplification and noise reduction. This is done by covering the topics of small signal amplifiers, differential amplifiers, digital circuits, and logic gates.

PH318 | Optics Lab | 02 | Compulsory | PH218 PH313 | + |

This course aims to conduct laboratory experiments, explain the theoretical foundations on which the experiments are based, and clarify the scientific applications of the topics covered in the laboratory. Instruct students in the efficient use of laboratory equipment in collecting and recording data. Applying the relevant mathematical models and performing the required calculations. It contains many laboratory experiments that cover the basics of physical and modern optics, such as determining the wavelength of sodium light in different ways, achieving the Cauchy relationship, Malus's law, and determining the specific charge of the electron, assigning Tabet Rydberg.

PH311 | Analytical Mechanics | 04 | Compulsory | PH212 | + |

This course covers advanced Newtonian mechanics topics related to motion under the action of a centripetal force, motion in moving coordinate systems, and Hamiltonian and Lagrangian mechanics.

PH315 | Electromagnetic Theory І | 03 | Compulsory | MA201 PH213 | + |

This course was designed as a physics course specializing in department students. It begins with the student's definition of electromagnetic physics and its relationship to physical science elsewhere. This course covers key topics: vectors, basic electromagnetic concepts, and electromagnetic theories.

PH312 | Quantum Mechanics І | 03 | Compulsory | MA201 PH212 PH317 | + |

This course provides an introduction to the concepts and formalism of quantum mechanics at the intermediate level of a bachelor's degree program. Which is based on a number of postulates provide a formal discussion of axioms, and how they can be used to extract quantitative information about precise physical systems. Quantum mechanics investigates the behavior of microscopic particles such as electrons and other tiny particles in atoms, molecules, and solids, as well as in external electromagnetic fields. The primary focus is on the independent and time-dependent Schrödinger equation after a comprehensive treatment of bound and unbound states in one dimension, and its applications to simple systems such as the harmonic oscillator, potential barrier, potential delta function, and the hydrogen atom without spin. The assumptions of quantum mechanics will be developed in the formalism of the observed operators that affect the space of the linear wave function, by analogy with finite-dimensional matrix operations on vectors.

### 7th Semester

Code | Title | Credits | Course Type | Prerequisite |
---|

PH410 | Electromagne tic Theory ІІ | 03 | Compulsory | MA307 PH315 PH317 | + |

This course aims to provide the student with the basic concepts of electromagnetic radiation, the various conservation laws, and the deduction of the laws of light as an electromagnetic wave. It covers the topics of Maxwell's equations, the propagation of electromagnetic waves and waves in bounded regions, radiation emission, and electrodynamics.

PH411 | Quantum Mechanics ІІ | 03 | Compulsory | MA307 PH312 | + |

This course introduces advanced concepts of quantum mechanics at the final level of a bachelor's degree programme. It covers a range of topics starting from Separation of the Schrödinger equation in spherical coordinates, a particle in a spherical potential well and the hydrogen atom, associated Lager polynomials, Dirac notation, Hilbert spaces, Eigenfunctions and Eigenvalues and orbital angular momentum ending with approximation methods.

PH413 | Nuclear Physics | 04 | Compulsory | PH312 | + |

This course introduces the principles of nuclear physics and covers the topics of the atomic nucleus, nuclear force, nuclear phenomena, nuclear models, nuclear radiation, nuclear interactions and Q interaction energy. Nuclear decay theories (alpha, beta and gamma). Radiation detectors.

PH415 | Solid State | 04 | Compulsory | PH312 PH314 | + |

This course introduces the nature of solids and enriches theoretical and experimental knowledge of their properties. It covers the topics of the crystalline state of solids, the real structure of solids, lattice dynamics, thermal properties of solids, and the electrical properties of solids.

### 8th Semester

Code | Title | Credits | Course Type | Prerequisite |
---|

PH418 | Plasma Physics | 03 | Elective | + |

The course introduces fundamental principles of plasma generation and properties of plasma . It cover the general introduction in plasma physics-(plasma density and temperature- Debye shielding- collision frequency- cyclotron frequency….)- Single particle motion- (in magnetic field- in magnetic and electric field) – waves in cold plasma- Kinetic theory and equation of motion, plasma applications (industrial and medical plasma applications)

PH419 | Nuclear Lab | 02 | Compulsory | PH413 | + |

This course aims to familiarize the student with nuclear radiation and how to deal with it, as well as the devices and reagents used in measuring nuclear radiation. It also aims to develop the student's skills in installation, control, taking measurements, recording results, charting, reaching conclusions, and the ability to analyze nuclear spectra, extract data from them, and write laboratory reports. .

PH420 | 02 | Compulsory | PH415 | + |

This course covers a set of laboratory experiments of solid state physics that contribute to the student's understanding of the composition of solids and theories related to it, such as the magnetic retardation curve experiment, the magnetic response of a homogeneous material, X-ray diffraction, the crystal structure, and the Hall effect.

PH425 | Laser Physics | 03 | Elective | + |

This course introduces the basic principles of laser generation and the properties of laser radiation by covering the topics of laser theory “Stimulated Emission and Absorption of Light – Dual Laser Power Level Systems, Three and Four Level System”, Laser Radiation Properties, Optical Resonators, Practical Laser Operation “Laser Types: Solid state laser (sapphire laser) - gas lasers, semiconductor lasers, laser applications.

PH499 | BSc Project | 02 | Compulsory | + |

This course (research project) represents the culmination of studies for a Bachelor of Science degree in Physics. Provides the opportunity to apply and extend material learned throughout the programme. The course spans a variety of topics, including theoretical, simulated and experimental studies.The main objective of the project is to enhance the student's scientific background and develop his practical skills, but not to obtain new scientific results. It includes the following:Propose, design and implement a scientific approach to study a scientific problem, how to write the results and the final report, and discuss the project.