Publication List for Faculty of Medical Technology

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    Document

LIBYAN MEDICAL EDUCATION: CHALLENGES TOWARD WFME CRITERIA

More Abstract This work shares Libyan experiences with medical education accreditation, as well as the challenges that the system faced in meeting the criteria of the World Federation of Medical Education (WFME). WFME, which was founded in 1972, is an international organization concerned with the education and training of medical doctors. WFME was initiated on the initiative of the WHO and the World Medical Association (WMA) with the goal of reviewing bodies that accredit basic medical education. The worldwide task force on accreditation in medical education was founded in 2004 by WHO and the WFME. In the same year, 26 members from 23 countries representing all six WHO–WFME regions assembled to discuss how WHO and WFME could assist in the establishment of long-term accrediting systems to ensure high-quality medical education. By 2024, all candidates must obtain a graduation certificate from a program certified by an entity that meets WFME or other international requirements for an accrediting system, according to the Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates. Thereafter, accreditation for all health training programs by 2020 was indorsed as part of the WHO’s Worldwide Strategy on human resources for health: workforce 2030 and was recommended by the WMA. In response to these regulations, the NCQAA has started to prepare “the National Standards Manual for Basic Medical Education” and further connect with all Libyan medical faculties to comply with these criteria, while linking with the WFME. This is based on the WHO endorsement that all countries to apply accreditation mechanisms for health training institutions by 2020. Now it is a time to call for a rigorous auditing system in addition to assessment mechanisms in order to warrant ongoing quality control, and the quality control agency should be self-governing of external encouragement and have only an academic agenda. Finally, all medical schools that have decided to be recognized by the WFME, must have strengthened their ability to face challenges and start adapting these regulations and standards. The construction of networks, alliances, and associations between Libyan medical faculties are encouraged as an efficient approach for implementing and obtaining this accreditation.
Ahmed Elbadri M Atia(11-2021)

Adherence of Libyan Community Pharmacies to Optimal Drug Storing Conditions during the Condition of Recurrent Electricity Shutdowns

Background and Objectives: Compliance of community pharmacies with the proper practice of storage and dispensing of medicines is crucial for ensuring the quality and safety of medicines, particularly with the circumstance of recurrent electricity blackout in Libya. This study was aimed to assess the compliance of community pharmacies with the proper practice of drug storage in Tripoli city, Libya. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey conducted in November 2020 targeting a total of 56 community pharmacies in Tripoli, Libya. The questionnaire was adapted from the WHO Checklist for Good Storage Practices and included 41 questions organized under five sections: socio-demographics, pharmacist’s attitude toward the quality of storage practices, queries on environmental storage conditions, the quality of facilities in the community pharmacy, and queries on storage and pharmacy practices. Data were presented as descriptive statistics. Results: Out of the total 56 visited pharmacies, a total of 46 (82.1%) pharmacists participated in the study with one pharmacist being interviewed in every pharmacy. Results showed that 15% of employees reported variety of cleanliness regulatory depending on cutting off running water circumstances in Tripoli and other reasons. About 78.8% participants observed dust in shelves and over the drugs packaging, and 22% of the participant pharmacies’ drugs exposure to direct sunlight. Additionally, 72% of employee experienced high temperatures in the pharmacy during electricity blackouts, whereas only 48% of them experienced humidity. In addition, 91.4% had alternative source of electricity, 44.3% had a power backup connected to the refrigerators. Conclusion: The compliance of majority of the community pharmacies operated in Tripoli is below standard. There is still need to improve the storage practices in the community pharmacies by obeying with the regulatory standards as specified by the Drug Regulatory Authority of Libya.
Ahmed Elbadri M Atia(5-2021)
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Tocotrienols Activate Nrf2 Nuclear Translocation and Increase the Antioxidant- Related Hepatoprotective Mechanism in Mice Liver

The most common preparation of tocotrienols is the tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF). This study aimed to investigate whether TRF induced liver Nrf2 nuclear translocation and influenced the expression of Nrf2-regulated genes. Methods: In the Nrf2 induction study, mice were divided into control, 2000 mg/kg TRF and diethyl maleate treated groups. After acute treatment, mice were sacrificed at specific time points. Liver nuclear extracts were prepared and Nrf2 nuclear translocation was detected through Western blotting. To determine the effect of increasing doses of TRF on the extent of liver nuclear Nrf2 translocation and its implication on the expression levels of several Nrf2-regulated genes, mice were divided into 5 groups (control, 200, 500 and 1000 mg/kg TRF, and butylated hydroxyanisole-treated groups). After 14 days, mice were sacrificed and liver RNA extracted for qPCR assay. Results: 2000 mg/kg TRF administration initiated Nrf2 nuclear translocation within 30 min, reached maximum level around 1 h and dropped to half-maximal levels by 24 h. Incremental doses of TRF resulted in dose-dependent increases in liver Nrf2 nuclear levels, along with concomitant dose-dependent increases in the expressions of Nrf2-regulated genes. Conclusion: TRF activated the liver Nrf2 pathway resulting in increased expression of Nrf2-regulated cytoprotective genes.
Ahmed Elbadri M Atia(9-2020)
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Information provided to customers about over-the-counter medications dispensed in community pharmacies in Tripoli, Libya: a cross-sectional study

More Please check this summary of your article Test We're testing a new feature which would provide a 1-sentence summary of an article to help others quickly decide if it is relevant for them. We need your help to find out how accurate this automatically generated summary is. This summary is for testing purposes – only you can see it. Summary The adequacy of information given to consumers on over-the-counter medications dispensed in community pharmacies in Tripoli, Libya, and compared the performance Thank you for your help! Your feedback will help improve this feature. Very good How would you summarize your article in 1 sentence? Help us improve the quality of this feature by writing your own summary. Others will not see your summary. Enter your 1-sentence summary (max 300 characters) Do you have any other feedback about this feature? Enter your feedback Submit Abstract and figures Background: Adherence to pharmacy practice guidelines for dispensing medications in pharmacy settings is important to ensure the safe use of medications. Aims: This study assessed the pattern and adequacy of information given to consumers on over-the-counter medications dispensed in community pharmacies in Tripoli, Libya, and compared the performance of pharmacists and non-pharmacists. Methods: This was a cross-sectional survey of private community pharmacies conducted in 2018 . Trained simulated patients were used to collect data on over-the-counter medications dispensed for hypothetical common cold symptoms and the information given by the pharmacy staff on the medication. This information included: name and the strength of the medication, indication for use, duration of use, dosage, how often to take the medicine, timing (before/after/with food), storage, expiry date, and side-effects of the medicine. Time taken to deliver the information was recorded. The adequacy of information provided by the pharmacists and non-pharmacists was compared. Results: A total of 169 pharmacists were surveyed. There were no significant differences between pharmacists and non-pharmacists in information given on the dispensed medications, except for information on taking the medication with food or not (84.5% of pharmacists gave this information versus 57.1% of non-pharmacists; P = 0.001) and on potential side-effects (39.4% of pharmacists versus 20.3% of non-pharmacists; P = 0.014). Significantly more pharmacists (85.9%) than non-pharmacists (61.2%) provided the medication-related information in less than 1 minute (P = 0.001). Conclusion: The inadequate information on medications provided by pharmacists is a concern for patient safety. Health regulatory organizations need to promote safe medication practices.
Ahmed Elbadri M Atia(7-2020)
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Knowledge, attitudes and practices of pharmacists about pharmacovigilance, Libya

Background: The concept of pharmacovigilance is not well known in Libya and its practice is still in the early stages. Aims: This study aimed to determine the knowledge, attitudes and practices of pharmacists in Tripoli, Libya about pharmacovigilance and the reporting of adverse drug reactions. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from October 2019 to February 2020 of working pharmacists randomly selected from pharmacies in Tripoli. Participants were eligible for inclusion if they had a degree or diploma in pharmacy from a recognized university or institute. Data were collected using a validated self-administered questionnaire. Results: Of 500 pharmacists selected, 408 completed the questionnaire. The pharmacists' knowledge of pharmacovigilance and reporting of adverse drug reactions was poor overall: only 28.9% correctly defined pharmacovigilance and 14.7% knew about the existence of a centre for pharmacovigilance in Libya. The attitudes of the pharmacists to pharmacovigilance was positive: 77.2% believed that pharmacovigilance needed to be included in the pharmacy curriculum and 73.0% said that they would practice pharmacovigilance if trained. Pharmacists depended mostly on drug information leaflets to update their knowledge on adverse drug reactions. Conclusion: Given the pharmacists' low level of knowledge about pharmacovigilance but their readiness to become involved if trained, training programmes should be introduced for practising pharmacists to improve their knowledge and encourage their active participation in pharmacovigilance. Regulators need to reinforce the importance of reporting adverse drug reactions and implement pharmacovigilance policies in the Libyan health care system.
Ahmed Elbadri M Atia(7-2021)
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الحماية التشريعية للحريات العامة في القانون الليبي

طالما أن الفرد والمجتمع متلازمان ولا ينفصلان، فإنه يجب تنظيم العلاقة بين سلطة الدولة وحريات الأفراد وبما أن ،في المجتمع الدستور يمثل وسيلة الحكم الديمقراطي في المجتمعات المتقدمة، فعليه تقع مهمة تنظيم هذه العلاقة تحيل كونه يس تصور مجتمع بشري بدون تشريع، فالرابطة الاجتماعية هي رابطة قانونية قبل كل شيء وحيث يكون المجتمع يكون القانون. وفي الواقع، لا تكون حماية ممارسة الحريات العامة دائما وفي كل مكان بنفس الطريقة، حتى داخل الدولة كما أن ال ،الواحدة حلول تختلف تبعا للحريات المعنية، أي تبعا للنشاط الإنساني المعني، وأنماط تنظيمها لا يقع دائما على ذات المستوى ، وإنما يتغير تبعا للحالات العادية التي يكون فيها المجتمع والظروف الاستثنائية التي تمر .بها البلاد لذلك فإن أساليب تنظيم الحرية ليست واحدة فقد تكون عن طريق الدستور أو القانون كما قد تكون عن طريق القرارات الإدارية التنظيمية .
حسام علي الحاج (6-2019)
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