### Description

The Department of Atmospheric Science offers an integrated study program to obtain a specialized degree (bachelor's degree). This program is designed to be sequenced, interconnected, and methodologically flexible with the opportunity for the student to choose a set of elective courses suited to his or her tendencies and objectives.

### Objectives

The overall objectives of the program are in the form of outputs that the graduate is supposed to acquire after the successful completion of the educational program.

1· Preparation of graduates capable of demonstrating specialized scientific knowledge in meteorology and atmospheric science in general.

2· Preparing graduates capable of employing practical and professional skills in the field of aerospace forecasting.

3. Encouraging distinguished graduates to enroll in postgraduate studies.

### Outcomes

Programme's target learning outputs

1. Knowledge of basic concepts and scientific terminology in meteorology.

2. Recognize the bases for the logical analysis of the weather situation using modern techniques, understand the elements of the atmosphere: the way they are measured, and realize the impact of each element on weather fluctuations and climate changes.

3. Recognize the types of surface ritualistic maps from them and Alawite as well as auxiliary maps such as epigram and thickness.

Accurately analyze the aerial situation.

4. Track the movement of pneumatic systems and fronts while anticipating their trajectory.

5. Accurate aerial prediction with continuous evolution, and the use of numerical models for simulating weather and climate changes.

6. Working in a team that shares views on reaching a highly credible air forecast.

7. Acquire editorial and oral communication skills with meteorological centers internally and externally.

8. Finding information on the development of aerial prediction skills from their different sources.

9. Capable of managing recognized methodologies in scientific research, especially with regard to aerial forecasting.

### Certificate Rewarded

Bachelor's degree

### Entry Reuirements

1· Obtaining GCSEs scientific department.

2· The student's rating is 65% and above.

### Study Plan

The Bachelor in Atmospheric science prepares students to qualify for Bachelor in Atmospheric science. The student studies several subjects which have been carefully chosen in this major to cover its different aspects.

It comprises 8 Semesters of study, in which the student will study a total of 134 units, which include 32 units of general subjects, and 76 major units, 3 of elective units. In addition to a final project in the student's major.

Study plan for this program is shown below:

### 1st Semester

Code | Title | Credits | Course Type | Prerequisite |
---|

AR051 | Arabic language 1 | 02 | University requirement | + |

Highlighting the beauty of the Arabic language and revealing the elements of originality and strength that are full of it, so that students increase their passion and interest in it.Close contact with our literary heritage and make students aware of its originality, diversity and comprehensiveness.Refine students' talents and develop their ability to understand the language, grammar, morphology and correct Arabic writing.Training students to write their scientific research, reports, and notes in correct writing, free of linguistic, stylistic, and spelling errors, and to facilitate the translation of many specialized texts.

AT111 | Introduction to Atmospheric Science | 03 | Compulsory | + |

The overall objectives of the rapporteur shall be written in the form of outputs to be acquired by the applicant after the successful completion of the course:· Introducing meteorology and its various branches with different characteristics, whether primary or applied.· Understand the components, percentage, and importance of the invasive and non-invasive atmosphere in the Earth's thermal equilibrium process and understand the four layers of the atmosphere with a focus on the near-surface troposphere.· Study different atmosphere elements such as atmospheric pressure, air density, temperature, and water vapor with an understanding of the thermal equilibrium process, daily temperature change extent, self-dry thermal attrition rate, and also self-saturated thermal attrition rate.· Knowledge of instability and instability in the atmosphere through the general theory of stability and also the relationship between the rate of thermal attrition of the rising air and the rate of thermal attrition of the prevailing atmosphere to the stability of the atmosphere. Geostrovic winds, downhill winds, and fog phenomena are also.

ST101 | Introduction to statistics | 04 | Compulsory | + |

1- Introducing the student to statistics, its importance, types of data, methods of collecting and summarizing them.2- The use of measures of central tendency and measures of dispersion, torsion and kurtosis.3- The concept of linear correlation of Pearson and Spearman and simple linear regression and its relationship to correlation.4- General concepts of probability.

PH111 | General Physics II | 04 | Compulsory | + |

This course is designed to serve as an introductory physics course for general school students at the University of Tripoli. It begins with introducing the student to physics and its relationship to other basic sciences. This course introduces the basic concepts of the principles of classical mechanics through unit systems and the basics of mechanics from motion in one dimension to Newton’s laws, work, energy, potential energy and energy conservation.

MA100 | Mathematics 1 | 04 | Compulsory | + |

The general objectives of the course in the form of outputs that the student is supposed to acquire after successful completion of the course are: · Recognize the concepts, terms, principles and laws of Sport1. · Know the functions and their types and apply algebraic operations to them. · Interpret the concept of the end and distinguish between its types and use appropriate theories to solve problems and link them to communication. · Providing the student with the concept of differentiation and using its rules and types to derive functions and using its applications to draw functions.

EL101 | English Language 1 | 02 | University requirement | + |

English courses specially designed for students who choose to study at the faculty of Basic Sciences. The principle objectives for both courses is to enable students use English for scientific. They provide students with practice on sentence patterns, structural words as well as non-structural vocabulary which are common to all scientific branches. The material incorporated in these courses intend to give students a good opportunity to read scientific texts, do grammar exercises and work on scientific terminology.

CH101 | General Chemistry 1 | 04 | Compulsory | + |

This course aims to:- Providing the student with general information on intangible numbers and understanding the use of chemical units for different measured quantities.-Familiarity with the concept of the atom in terms of atomic structure and the application of the laws of the atom-Understand the periodic table and name the elements and chemical compounds- Introducing the student to understanding oxidation and reduction and weighing equations in different ways

### 2nd Semester

Code | Title | Credits | Course Type | Prerequisite |
---|

AT112 | Principles of Atmospheric Science | 03 | Compulsory | AT111 | + |

The basics of atmospheric science course aims to achieve the following:1. Definition of the general circulation in the atmosphere - the general rotation when assuming that the earth is static and homogeneous - the effect of the earth's rotation on the general circulation of the air - the effect of the apparent movement of the sun on the general circulation of the air - the effect of the different nature of the earth's surface on the general circulation of the air.2. Understand surface pressure belts (areas of high pressure, areas of low pressure) and also wind systems above the Earth's surface.3. Study of solar radiation and the Earth's share of it - the amount of radiation reaching the atmosphere, the diffuse radiation - the effect of solar radiation on the atmosphere - the Earth's thermal budget - the geographical distribution of solar radiation.

PH112 | General Physics II | 04 | Compulsory | + |

This course is designed to serve as an introductory physics course for general school students at the University of Tripoli. It begins with introducing the student to physics and its relationship to other basic sciences. This course introduces the basic concepts of the principles of classical mechanics through unit systems and the basics of mechanics from motion in one dimension to Newton’s laws, work, energy, potential energy and energy conservation.

MA102 | Calculus and Analysis principle 2 | 04 | Compulsory | + |

The general objectives of the course in the form of outputs that the student is supposed to acquire after successful completion of the course are: The student should be familiar with the concept of finite integration, its properties and the basic theorems for its calculation. The student should discuss the concept of unlimited integration and distinguish the different methods for his account. The student demonstrates the use of integration applications. The student interprets the meaning of defective integrals.

CS110 | Structured Programming | 04 | General | CS100 | + |

1. Learn basic concepts in computers, programming language, data types, and develop logical thinking skills. Converting algorithms into a program in Fortran.2. Identifying input and output sentences, simple and compound sentences, logical expressions, test operations, and repetitive sentences.3. Study and understand how to format data and correct errors in the program.4. Learn about advanced data structures such as matrices and employ sub-programs to improve program efficiency and the ability to read and understand programs.

CH103 | General Chemistry 2 Laboratory | 03 | Compulsory | + |

• Identification of boiling acid cracks• Teaching the student, like the rest, to distinguish between the elements of the acid groups• Identification of boiling acid cracks• Teaching the student, like the rest, to distinguish between the elements of the basic groups

CH102 | General chemistry 2 | 03 | Compulsory | CH101 | + |

This decision aims to:- Provide students with information on the ideal gases and real gases and familiarize themselves with the concept of changes in the article's cases.- Accommodate basic concepts of how to express concentration units of chemical solutions and the movement of chemical reactions.- Identifying students to understand chemical balance, acid and rules.- The student understands the meaning of dissolution and the balance of complex ions.

### 3rd Semester

Code | Title | Credits | Course Type | Prerequisite |
---|

AR052 | Arabic language 2 | 02 | University requirement | AR051 | + |

Accustom the student to clear expressions of his ideas in pronunciation and writing and the good use of punctuation marks.Developing the student's literary taste so that he realizes the aesthetic aspects of speech styles, meanings and images.Develop the student's spelling and writing ability and skill so that he can write correctly in all respects.Identify the beauty of the Arabic language and literature, and that the student acquires the ability to study the branches of the Arabic language.

MA206 | Linear Algebra | 03 | Compulsory | + |

The overall objectives of the rapporteur in the form of outputs that the student is supposed to acquire after the successful completion of the course are:· The student discusses directional spaces and related abstract concepts.· The student recognizes the compulsory concepts and terminology of matrices and determinants and uses creative thinking and problem solving methods in proof of written transfers.· Recognizes linear equation systems and applications.· Recognizes the basis and dimension of directional spaces.

MA200 | Advanced Calculus and Analysis Principle | 04 | Compulsory | MA104 | + |

The general objectives of the course in the form of outputs that the student is supposed to acquire after successful completion of the course are: · The student recognizes functions in more than one variable and their properties. · Discusses the differentiation of functions in more than one variable and its applications. · The student demonstrates the properties of binary and triple integration in different coordinates. · The student explains the convergence and divergence of series.

AT202 | Synoptic Meteorology (1) | 03 | Compulsory | AT112 | + |

1. Learn about the process of collecting daily weather data, distributing it on different weather maps, and analyzing it to understand the atmospheric situation at a particular location.2. Understanding the balance of the atmosphere between the Earth's surface and the end of the troposphere and its importance in the weather through the hydrostatic equation.3. Understanding the characteristics of geostrophic and sloping winds and their use in surface and overhead pressure analyses.4. Familiarity with the types, sources and movement of air masses, air fronts, depressions and air elevations to be used when analyzing weather data and also as predictive bases.

AT203 | Atmospheric Science Laboratory 1 | 02 | Compulsory | AT112 | + |

1. Introducing students to the process of measuring atmospheric variables or elements, classification of meteorological meteorological devices, methods and mechanism of recording meteorological devices, features and characteristics of the meteorological device. Also the meteorological station and its various devices. 2. Familiarity of the student with the working mechanism of the atmospheric pressure gauges and the various air temperature gauges, as well as the methods of measuring each of these two elements.3. Introducing the element of atmospheric humidity (water vapor) and the devices used to measure it, such as: sychrometer with natural ventilation, rotating psychrometer with artificial ventilation, hygrometer, hygrograph, the process of condensation of water vapor in the atmosphere. Also, an understanding of the working mechanism of wind speed and direction measuring devices such as the propeller anemometer, precipitation measuring devices and evaporation measuring devices.4 . Familiarize students with the process of measuring the number of hours of sunshine and measuring the amount of solar radiation and the devices used for this purpose. Also, methods for measuring the height of the base of the tow.

AT204 | Atmospheric Dynamics 1 | 03 | Compulsory | MA100 | + |

1. Identify the vectors in the atmosphere and the main forces that cause air movement and arising from air movement such as (pressure gradient force, gravity, Coriolis, etc.). Also dimensions and natural units and method of analysis.2. Identify the composition of the atmosphere (hydrostatic equation), the basic conservation laws, the Lagrangian system.3. Familiarity with the components of motion in spherical coordinates and understanding the application of the total differential of a vector in a circularly moving coordinate system with dimensional analysis of the equations of motion.4. Learn about the continuity equation and the way it is derived, as well as the thermodynamic energy equation for the atmosphere, with an understanding of the stability criteria for dry air.

### 4th Semester

Code | Title | Credits | Course Type | Prerequisite |
---|

AT307 | Atmospheric Dynamics 2 | 03 | Compulsory | AT204 | + |

1. Identify the balanced horizontal flow, its approximations and types, as well as its equations. Geostrophic winds and their properties, and downhill winds and their properties.2. Familiarity with trajectories and streamlines, vertical shear of geostrophic winds: convection winds. Also the atmosphere, the barotropic atmosphere and the baroclinic atmosphere, vertical variations of pressure systems.3. Understanding the properties of velocity fields, divergence in Cartesian coordinates, divergence from the continuity equation, divergence of geostrophic flow.· 4. Identifying the mechanism of generating and dissolving fronts.

AT205 | Atmospheric Physics 1 | 03 | Compulsory | AT112 | + |

1. Identify the electric charges in the clouds, the electric atmosphere, the ionization between the Earth's surface and the ionosphere. It also discharges and separates electrical charges on the surface of the earth and inside the cloud.2. Learn about lightning, the forms of lightning and how it occurs, thunder and the reasons for the continued sound of thunder, atmospheric phenomena and various lightings in the sky.3. Knowledge of refraction of light - absolute refractive index, relative refractive index and its equation, refraction of light in different media, reflection of light and its applications.4. Identify the light phenomena _ the light of ice crystals (the solar corona, the sun's poles...etc). Also, the lights of water droplets (rainbow, corona, etc.).

MA201 | Ordinary Differential Equation1 | 03 | University requirement | MA102 | + |

The general objectives of the course in the form of outputs that the student is supposed to acquire after successful completion of the course are: · Recognize the basic concepts of an ordinary differential equation. · The student learns methods of solving equations of the first order and the problem of the initial value and ensuring the existence of the solution or not in certain circumstances. · The student acquires the ability to solve linear differential equations. · The student uses Laplace transformations to solve linear equations.

AT206 | Atmospheric Science Laboratory 2 | 02 | Compulsory | AT203 | + |

1. Introduction to weather maps and the method of preparing them, meteorological regions, meteorological times, meteorological reports and the codes used in them. Also an introductory introduction to the process of coding and decoding surface and upper atmosphere observations.· 2. Understanding and signing code formats of surface observations reports from fixed earth stations, surface observations reports from marine stations and signing them, also surface observations reports from mobile earth stations and signing them.3. Familiarity with the code formats of the reports of the upper atmosphere observations and signing them.4. Conducting some practical applications for decoding the reports of the various monitoring stations and their signatures.

EL102 | English language 2 | 02 | University requirement | EL101 | + |

English are courses specially designed for students who choose to study at the faculty of Basic Sciences. The principle objectives for both courses is to enable students use English for scientific. They provide students with practice on sentence patterns, structural words as well as non-structural vocabulary which are common to all scientific branches. The material incorporated in these courses intend to give students a good opportunity to read scientific texts, do grammar exercises and work on scientific terminology.

AT303 | Atmospheric Thermodynamics 1 | 03 | Compulsory | MA100 | + |

1. Introducing students to the concepts of systems and basic units, latent heat, work done, modifications, definition of inverse operations, variables of state functions, equation of state, equation of state of gases, mixture of ideal gases2. Students' familiarity with the first principle, internal energy, interpretation of the system by self-occupation, heat capacity at constant volume, heat capacity at constant pressure, latent heat, calculation of internal energy and heat content, latent heat experiment of pure substances, Kirchhoff's equation, self-processes in ideal gases3. Introduce students to self-processes, inertial heat, polytropic processes, the second principle of thermodynamics - entropy, its definition, classification of processes in thermodynamics, thermodynamic scale for absolute heat, formulas for the second principle of thermodynamics, the interrelationships between the first and second principles, the Gibbs function Maxwell's relations, equilibrium conditions for natural processes.· 4. Calculating entropy, thermodynamic functions for ideal gases, entropy of mixing for ideal gases, thermodynamic equations for the case, finding internal energy and heat content, the difference between heat capacity at constant volume and heat capacity at constant pressure.

AT309 | Synoptic Meteorology 2 | 03 | Compulsory | AT202 | + |

1. Studying the gravitational effort in the atmosphere, the rise in gravitational effort, as well as the changes that occur in the main pressure systems (atmospheric heights, depressions) when the temperature increases or decreases within their centers.2. Understanding the stability and instability of air masses, the process of generation and dissolution of fronts, the jet stream, as well as the formation of depressions and elevations in the mid-latitude regions. With an understanding of the characteristics of large synoptic systems.3. Learn how to prepare thickness maps in general, calculating the thickness of the troposphere layer graphically and mathematically.4. Familiarity with predictive rules related to depressions and altitudes, pressure centers, as well as rules related to air fronts.

### 5th Semester

Code | Title | Credits | Course Type | Prerequisite |
---|

CS321 | 04 | Compulsory | CS111 | + |

1. Recognize basic concepts of numerical analysis, study some numerical methods to solve non-linear and multi-variable equations, and expand the student's understanding of how these methods are used to solve issues.2. Identification, calculation, and study of error - stability - and proximity to these methods3. Using the computer to find the desired solution closest and trying to overcome the disadvantages of these methods

AT310 | Atmospheric Boundary layer Meteorology | 03 | Compulsory | AT307 | + |

Identify the nature of accurate meteorology and air movement in the boundary layer of the atmosphere, stresses and their impact on the layer adjacent to the earth's surface, the dimensions of movement in the bounded layer. Equations of conservation of energy and moments, equations of diffusion, the nature of non-rheological motion and the definition of the Reynolds number, the equations of motion in the surface layer, the description of the equations of motion by visualization, the conclusion of a finite Reynolds and the definition of total tangential and perpendicular stresses, the definition of the obstruction coefficient.2. Understanding the thermal energy equation: average and boundary energy, the various factors that affect the energy balance, the different energy transformations, the equations of motion for velocities in a neutral atmosphere.· 3. Being able to calculate the coefficients of motion, the influence of stability states, Richardson's number, Richardson's flux, Ladenhof symmetry theory, length scale. Also, understanding the change in velocities and temperature with height in the stable and unstable atmosphere· 4. Acquaintance with Akman's theory to study the finite layer, the height of the finite layer, the vertical velocity in the Akman layer, the change of stresses with height, Rossby's theory of symmetry. Also conducting applications in accurate meteorology: vertical distribution of pollutants, application of diffusion equations for pollutants.

AT300 | 1 Climate | 02 | Compulsory | AT112 | + |

1. The student's familiarity with climatology in general and its different classifications, with a focus on the regional climate, the North African climate, the Mediterranean climate and also the desert climate.2. Identifying the relationship of climate classifications as well as local and global climate changes to the general circulation of the atmosphere and solar radiation.3. Identify the weather phenomena that occur in the atmosphere and their impact on the global and local climate, especially the global warming phenomenon, the Nao phenomenon and the El Nino phenomenon.

AT301 | Atmospheric Physics 2 | 03 | Compulsory | AT205 | + |

1. Learn about solar radiation and its various laws and how it relates to the processes that occur in the atmosphere with an understanding of the electromagnetic spectrum and wave theory.2. Learn about radiation laws and how they are used in analyzing atmospheric elements, understanding energy balance, energy density, and the transmission of waves through them.3. Familiarity with the interactions of solar radiation with gaseous components of the atmosphere and the role of the resulting energy in interaction with components on the earth's surface, as well as atmospheric phenomena related to radiation and making some predictive applications on them.

AT304 | Atmospheric Thermodynamics 2 | 03 | Compulsory | AT303 | + |

1. Learn about humid air systems, the basic equation for an open system, the equation for a heterogeneous system, the basic formula for heterogeneous systems, the number of independent variables, the transition phase of water balance, the latent heat of evaporation, condensation, melting, freezing and sublimation, the phase transition balance of water (the triple point, critical point), the internal equilibrium of the system.2. Identify the latent heat change of evaporation, a thermodynamic surface of an aqueous substance, the Clausius-Clapeyron equation, the latent heat variation along the equilibrium curve, water vapor and moist air, humidity variables (water vapor pressure, mixing ratio, specific humidity, relative humidity, Absolute humidity, dew point temperature, humid temperature, dew point), relationships that link humidity variables (specific constant of moist air, water vapor pressure with mixing ratio, mixing ratio with specific humidity, partial fraction of water vapor).3. Identify the thermal capacities of moist air at constant volume and at constant pressure, methods of reaching saturation, saturated self-processes, static stability and air parcel buoyancy (hydrostatic equilibrium, dry self-reduction rate, default temperature), buoyancy force affecting the air parcel, Saturated self-decreasing rate.4. Identify the stability conditions for moist air, the potential temperature of wet air, the default voltage temperature, the stability conditions for dry air, mixing and convection, self-mixing, convective condensation level.

AT305 | Atmospheric Science Laboratory 3. | 02 | Compulsory | AT202 | + |

1. Introduction to the basics of map analysis, the rules for drawing isolines, the rules for the analysis of equality, the basic analysis on the surface map, the analysis of isobars, the analysis of isotherms, as well as the definition of pressure patterns, the atmospheric elevation, the dent, the depression, the furrow, the recession zone , wavy barometric pattern, secondary depression, isothermal analysis, barometric isobaric analysis2. Introducing the characteristics and analysis of upper atmosphere maps (fixed pressure levels). Barometric Map Analysis 1000 mbar, Barometric Map Analysis 850 mbar, Barometric Map Analysis 700 mbar, Barometric Map Analysis 500 mbar, Barometric Map Analysis 300/250/200 mbar,3. Familiarity with preparing thickness maps, forming a thickness map, calculating the thickness directly on the thickness map, calculating the thickness by subtracting two pressure levels from each other, the characteristics of the thickness of the layer 1000-500 mbar, places of change of furrows and forecasts, furrows and heat emission at different levels,4. Being able to analyze the difference in dew point and wind analysis. Also revealing the compatibility between the surface map and the upper atmosphere map. In terms of changing the places of heights, depressions, grooves and indentations with height, identifying air fronts in the three dimensions.

AT308 | Atmospheric Dynamics 3 | 03 | Compulsory | AT307 | + |

1. Learn about spin, spin and spin equations, spin theory, spin in a barotropic fluid, relative spin, and spin in a baroclinic fluid. Also relativistic vorticity, vorticity equations in various coordinate systems.2. Familiarity with the dynamic equations in the semi-geostrophic system, the equation of the Earth's potential slope, the inherent (subjective) vorticity equation using the equation of the Earth's potential slope in the semi-geostrophic system, the omega equation ω in the semi-geostrophic system..3. Identifying the oscillatory motion in the atmosphere, the method of turbulent quantities, the assumptions of turbulence, the turbulent equation for the motion equation, the turbulent equation for the energy equation.4. Identifying waves in the atmosphere, types of kinetic waves in the atmosphere, Rossby waves, internal gravitational waves, gravitational waves for shallow waters, sound waves.

### 6th Semester

Code | Title | Credits | Course Type | Prerequisite |
---|

AT306 | Atmospheric Science Laboratory 4 | 02 | Compulsory | AT305 | + |

1. Introducing the Tephigram diagram, and all its components such as: isobars, dry isobars, saturated isobars, temperature isotherms, saturated isobaric lines, condensation, air cooling methods, as well as enabling The student is able to sign the data on the Alteva Gram chart and extract the atmospheric elements (temperature, dew point temperature, mixing ratio, saturated mixing ratio, relative humidity, saturated water vapor pressure, water vapor pressure, estimated (default) temperature, inertial temperature , condensation level by lift, freezing level and tropopause level elevation.2. Introduction to 1000 millibar level height gauges and thickness gauges. Also, cases of stability and instability and its multiple indicators.3. Understanding the thermal inversion: the radiative thermal inversion, the downward thermal inversion. Also understand radiation haze, haze hazard index, haze stability index.· 4. Definition of the fronts, their generation and their withering away. Also introducing the hoodograph chart, wind signature on it, and forecasting the minimum and maximum temperature.

AT412 | Remote Sensing Meteorology | 03 | Compulsory | AT310 | + |

1. Introducing the science and technology of remote sensing and its components: digital images, radiation, electromagnetic energy, producing maps and images, energy in the atmosphere and its interaction with various media (air, land, water, gases and impurities) and its impact on remote sensing. Also methods of collecting remote sensing data and methods of analysis.2. Introducing remote sensing devices, and sensor sensors suitable for measuring atmospheric elements and various weather phenomena, meteorological satellites, air and space sensing systems, as well as mechanisms for monitoring weather elements by remote sensing.3. Interpretation of images captured by air and space sensing technology, analysis of their data and extraction of results, with an understanding of engineering measurements of aerial images.4. The ability to use the known forecasting methods and means for future forecasting of weather elements, using remote sensing data. Also the ability to write technical forecast reports according to the approved formulas.

AT312 | Marine Meteorology | 03 | Compulsory | AT307 | + |

1. Introducing the importance of seas and oceans and their relationship to atmospheric science. Also, introducing the characteristics of sea and ocean water in terms of temperature, salinity, and basic concepts about waves, classifying them according to their general shape, and dividing them on the basis of the influence of winds.2. Studying wave energy, factors affecting waves, wave speed in water, deep water waves, shallow water waves, transitional water waves, waves breaking on the beach. Also a study of tides (tides): definition of tides, extent of tides: spring tides (high), moderate tides (lower), forces causing tides, other factors affecting tides.3. Introducing how to monitor and measure marine meteorological variables: ship observations, reports of marine meteorological observations, temperature monitoring, humidity, atmospheric pressure, water surface temperature, depth temperature, salinity, estimation of sea visibility, ocean currents, monitoring by satellites and gliders.4. Familiarity with wave energy technologies and the characteristics of the Mediterranean climate.

AT413 | الأرصاد الجوي المائي | 03 | Compulsory | AT310 | + |

1. Introduction to the general science of hydrology (water science), components of the atmosphere and weather factors related to water, physical processes and state transformation.2. Definition of phase transition process, study of surface water, study of sea and ocean water, factors affecting water movement. Introducing methods and devices for measuring evaporation and condensation, understanding cloud formation, and precipitation classification.3. Familiarity with factors affecting precipitation, precipitation efficiency, precipitation estimates, and precipitation measurements. Also, surface precipitation and upper atmosphere condensation, rainfall return, temporal and spatial distribution.4. Understanding the nature of liquid and solid precipitation, terrain precipitation, frontal precipitation, precipitation calculations and data analysis. Also, the phenomena related to precipitation, torrential rain, floods, acid rain, water pollution, and the validity of precipitation water.

### 7th Semester

Code | Title | Credits | Course Type | Prerequisite |
---|

AT419 | Research Methods | 01 | Compulsory | + |

1. Introducing the nature of scientific research, its multiple approaches, how to choose a research topic, and defining the study area. Also, the method of formulating the research problem, the purpose of the research, designing the research plan, choosing the title.2. Teaching the student how to conduct a survey of previous studies related to the research topic, clarifying the research tools, the research timetable, and planning the time allotted for the research. In addition, guiding the student on the best ways to collect scientific research data - library sources, taking notes, and quoting the opinions of another author.3. Familiarize the student with the correct methods of analyzing and evaluating data - map analysis, statistical analysis, and graphing. Also use correlation coefficients between variables and regression equations.4. Teaching the student how to write scientific research correctly, especially by following the hierarchy in tabulating the chapters and choosing the appropriate references for the research topic, presenting the results, writing the basic content of the research and the conclusion.

AT407 | Atmospheric Science Laboratory 5 | 02 | Compulsory | AT306 | + |

1. Learn about routine aviation meteorological reports: report code, report definition, report components: surface wind monitoring, horizontal visibility monitoring, temperature and dew point monitoring, atmospheric pressure monitoring. Also, selected aviation meteorological reports: report code, report definition, conditions for observing surface winds, conditions for observing horizontal visibility, conditions for observing weather features, conditions for observing clouds.2. Recognition of forecast codes: aviation forecast, airport forecast, landing forecast: inclination prediction, prediction code, surface wind forecast, weather forecast, clouds forecast, air path forecast. Also, knowledge of aviation warnings: warning of meteorological manifestations, airport warning.3. Practice making an airport forecast, practice making an area forecast, practice making an air track forecast.4. Being able to use surface maps and upper air maps in preparing sections for different flight paths. Also, carrying out integrated practical exercises for analyzing flight maps.

AT406 | Aviation Meteorology | 03 | Compulsory | AT309 | + |

1. Identifying and monitoring atmospheric elements for aviation purposes: atmospheric air density, density change at the surface and with altitude, the importance of air density for aviation. Atmospheric stability and instability, atmospheric phenomena that cause and accompany stability and instability in the atmosphere. Also, wind and its change with altitude, visibility, fog, clouds, icing on planes2. Understanding turbulence, thunderstorms, and sand and dust phenomena.3. Familiarity with the devices and methods of aviation meteorological observations, and how to monitor the meteorological factors necessary for aviation. Also understand weather maps and aviation forecasts.4. Being able to analyze trajectory maps and weather forecasts, and learn about the systems and procedures of meteorological services necessary for air navigation.

AT405 | Agro-Meteorology | 03 | Compulsory | AT310 | + |

1. Knowing the concept and basics of agricultural meteorology and its importance. Agricultural monitoring stations and processing their data.2. Providing students with knowledge of weather elements (rain, humidity, temperature, ...), as well as frost and drought and their effect on plants.3. Identifying the role played by the change in soil moisture and the change in the amount of sunlight in the growth of plants.4. Learn how to use weather and agricultural data in conducting agricultural studies (phenological monitoring).

AT417 | Statistical Applications in Atmospheric Science | 04 | Compulsory | AT112 | + |

1. Introducing students to the nature of statistics in meteorology, climate data, and statistical measurements, and teaching them how to use and apply statistical methods in describing and analyzing weather and climate data.2. Providing the student with the skills of collecting, presenting and analyzing data with the aim of extracting and drawing conclusions about the various weather phenomena under study.3. Enlightening students with the foundations of the quantitative approach and the scientific method, highlighting the special importance of statistical and mathematical methods in measurement, clarifying the role of theories, laws and models in enriching climate knowledge, and introducing students to the sources of statistical data in the various fields of meteorology.4. Using and applying statistical methods and analyzes (regression analysis, correlation analysis, time series analysis, etc.) in solving different types of meteorological problems.

### 8th Semester

Code | Title | Credits | Course Type | Prerequisite |
---|

AT450 | Project | 02 | Compulsory | AT419 | + |

1. Determine the research problem with setting objectives and questions. Also choosing a specific approach to implement the research project.2. Choosing the study data and data collection tools and setting the theoretical framework for the study with determining the appropriate methods for analyzing the data. Also data analysis, documenting the results and formulating the project introduction.3. Writing the final draft of the project and documenting references. In addition to presenting the research project for linguistic review, and then submitting the first draft of the project.

AT411 | Air Pollution | 03 | Compulsory | AT310 | + |

1. Identify the concept of atmospheric pollution and its impact on weather and climate, the horizontal composition and chemical content of the atmosphere, chemical transformations and photochemistry in the atmosphere.2. The student acquires full knowledge of the processes that occur to the various components of the atmosphere due to pollution, such as: turbulent transport of air vortices, the spread of pollution in the atmosphere - stability and instability in the atmosphere, vertical and horizontal transport of pollution.· 3. Student realization of the impact of pollution on the atmosphere: the effect on air temperature, rain, fog, and clouds. It also affects the concentration of gases in the atmosphere.

AT408 | Atmospheric Science Laboratory 6 | 02 | Compulsory | AT407 | + |

1. Introducing synoptic weather forecasts: diagnostic analysis of weather phenomena and movement on the synoptic scale (surface and upper weather maps).2. Familiarity with the methods used in synoptic weather forecasts.3. Studying, reviewing and discussing the past, current and future weather - Introduction.4. Studying, reviewing, and discussing the past, present, and future weather using surface weather maps and upper atmosphere weather maps.

AT420 | Solar Energy | 03 | Compulsory | AT112 | + |

1. Introducing the concept of energy and its renewable and conventional types. Distinguishing between energy sources and linking different renewable energy sources.2. Introducing the importance of thermal radiation solar energy, the characteristics of the sun, the angle of inclination of the sun, the angle of vertical inclination of the sun, the angle of elevation of the sun, the angle of incidence of the solar rays. Also, the definition of solar radiation and the effect of the atmosphere on solar radiation, the geographical distribution of solar radiation, factors affecting the distribution of solar radiation on the surface of the earth, direct radiation, diffuse radiation, comprehensive or total radiation.3. Familiarity with radiation laws: Stefan-Boltzmann's law, Kirkhoff's law, radiation coefficient, solar radiation, solar constant, solar radiation incident vertically on a horizontal surface, instantaneous solar radiation incident on a horizontal surface parallel to the Earth's surface,· 4 Studying the monthly average of the daily total solar radiation falling on a horizontal surface from the hour of sunrise to the hour of its sunset on the ground. Also learn about the radiant energy in the climate system, solar thermal stations and solar radiation measuring devices.