Department of Fine Arts

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Who works at the Department of Fine Arts

Department of Fine Arts has more than 33 academic staff members

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Mr. assad sluieman abdolalla ounalla

أسعد عون الله هو احد اعضاء هيئة التدريس بقسم الفنون الجميلة بكلية الفنون والإعلام. يعمل السيد أسعد عون الله بجامعة طرابلس كـمحاضر مساعد منذ 2013-07-22 وله العديد من المنشورات العلمية في مجال تخصصه

Publications

Some of publications in Department of Fine Arts

عناصر وأشكال ا لمحراب بمساجد المدينة القديمة (طرابلس ) و توظيفها في التصميم الداخلي

لم يكن للعرب في عهد النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم فن خاص بهم يستحق الذكر، ولكنهم عندما فتحوا سوريا و العراق ومصر وإيران, تبنوا الفنون الرفيعة الراقية في هذه البلاد ، وبدأ أسلوب ناشئ ينمو تدريجيا مشتقاً من هذه الفنون . وطبقاً لتعاليم الإسلام خلت العمائر الدينية الإسلامية من التماثيل والصور، وأدى ذلك إلى استخدام الموضوعات المستمدة من الطبيعة استخداماً زخرفياً بحثاً. وفي بداية نشأة المساجد لم تكن المئذنة أو القبة والمحراب من عناصر عمارة المسجد، ولكن المعماري الذي فهم من عمارة المسجدأنها تعبير عن الكون بشكل مصغر، فأنشأ المحراب ليبين اتجاه القبلة ثم بعد ذلك أخذ المعماريون والمهندسون والفنيون والمزخرفون يبدعون في العمائر الدينية والمدنية ، وهذا ماتجلى لنا في المساجد الكبيرة الجامعة في الأمصار الإسلامية ، مثل الجامع الإموي في سوريا ، ومسجد شيان في الصين ، ومسجد كيرمان في إيران ، وجامع قرطبة في الأندلس ، وقبة الصخرة في فلسطين ، وهكذا انتشرت هذه الفنون من مكان لآخر ، لتبرز لنا معناً عظيماً يتمحور في الفن الإسلامي بصفة عامة ، والمحاريب بصفة خاصة قليد المعماري الذي اتبعه معماريوا المسجد الليبي ، هو بناء مسجد بسيط خال من الزخرفة ، و تلاحظ هذه الظاهرة في أغلب المساجد التي شيدت سواء قبل الفترة العثمانية أو في أثنائها ، غير أن هناك بعض المساجد التي حظيت بنصيب من الزخرفة منذ فترة مبكرة ، كالزخارف الجصية المحفورة ذات عناصر زخرفية نباتية ،و كذلك الزخارف الحجريةالمحفورة والكتابات الكوفية المحفورة في الحجر. كما هناك بعض المساجد قد حظيت بعناية زخرفية ، متمثلة في وجود بعض الزخارف البسيطة ، مثل استخدام عنصر الوريدة البارزة في كوشات العقود ، و التي تصاحبها أحيانا مجموعة أخرى من الوريدات الصغيرة ، محفورة في الأطر التي تحدد مداخل الجوامع ، و مداخل بيت الصلاة ، و في حالات أخرى تكسي كوشات العقود ببلاطات من القشاني ذات اللون الواحد أوالمتعددة الألوان و في أمثلة أخرى تكون زخارف المحاريب انعكاسا لنفس التصميم و الزخرفة لمدخل بيت الصلاة الذي يقع على محور واحد مع المحراب من أبرز الزخارف التي أستخدمت في مساجد المدينة القديمة (طرابلس) عنصر الوريدة البارزة في كوشات العقود،تصاحبها أحيانا مجموعة أخرى من الوريدات الصغيرة محفورة في الاطر ، وفي بعض الأحيان يضاف إليها عنصر الهلال الزخرفي المموج لقمم عقود المداخل ،وفي حالات أخرى تكسي كوشات العقود ببلاطات من القاشاني ذات اللون الواحد أو الألوان المتعددة .
صلاح الدين الفيتوري (2010)
Publisher's website

الخط العربي ﻛﻌﻨﺼﺮ ﺗﺸﻜﻴﻠﻲ في ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ الليبي المعاصر

ﺘﻌﺘﺒﺭ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﻴﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻨﺎﻭﻟﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﻁ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻲ ﺒﺼﻔﺔ ﻋﺎﻤﺔ، ﻭﻤﺩﻯ ﺘﻭﻅﻴﻔﻪ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺠﻤل ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻭﻥ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻴﺔ ﺤﻴﺙ ﺠﺎﺀ ﻋﻨﻭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ : "ﺍﻟﺨﻁ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺼﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻲ ﻜﻌﻨﺼﺭ ﺘﺸﻜﻴﻠﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﺒﻲ ﺇﺫ ﻴﻘﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺤﺙ ﺒﻤﺤﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﻤﻨﻪ ﻹﺤﻴﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌ ﺘﺎﺭﻴﺦ ﺍﻟﺨﻁ ﺭﺒﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻋﺒﺭ ﺍﻟﺤﻀﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺩﻴﻤﺔ ﻭﻓﺘﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﺭ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ ﻴﺎﻡ ﻋﻬﺩ ﺍﻟﺭﺴﻭل ﺼﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺴﻠﻡ، ﻓﺎ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﻟﺘﺄﻜﻴﺩ ﺤﺭﻑ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻟﻴﺒﻴﺎ ﺒﺤﺎﺠﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﺼﺎﻟﺘﻪ ﻭﻤﻜﺎﻨﺘﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ، ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﺘﻜﻭﻴﻥ ﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﻤﺘﻤ ﺍﻟﻤ ﻴﺯﺓ ﻭﻤﺭﺘﺒﻁﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﺒﻲ. ﺨﻤﺱ ﻓﺼﻭل ﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ، ﻭﺘﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺴﺘﺔ ﻓﺼﻭل ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺼل،: ﻭﻫﻲ، ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺱ ﺇﺠﺭﺍﺌﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺼل ﺍﻷﻭل ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ ﻤﻭﻀﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺨﻁﺔ "ﻭﺘﻨﺎﻭل، ﻭﻜﺫﻟﻙ ﻓﺭﻭﺽ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ، ﻭﻗﺩ ﺠﺎﺀ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺘﻭﻀﻴﺢ ﻟﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ ﻭﺃﻫﻤﻴﺘﻪ ﺃﻫﺩﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ ﻭﺤﺩﻭﺩﻩ" ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺯﻤﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻭﻀﻭﻋﻴﺔ" ﻭﻤﻨﻬﺠ ، ﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ ﻭﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺒﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺃﺴﺘﻘﻰ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺤﺙ ﻭﺍﺴﺘﻔﺎﺩ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ، ﻭﻤﺼﻁﻠﺤﺎﺘﻪ ﺼﻴﺎﻏﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﺴﺎﻟﺔ. ﺍﻟﻔﺼل ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻲ ﻤﺩﺨل ﻋﺎﻡ ﻟﻔﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﻁ : ﺘﻨﺎﻭل ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻔﺼل ﺃﻭﹰﻻ ﺒﻌﺭﺽ ﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺭﻴﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﻟﻠﺨﻁ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻲ ﻟﺒﻌﺽ ﻭﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻵﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺭﻴﻤﺔ، ﻭﺍﻟﻜﹼﺘﺎﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻔﻜﺭﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻷﺤﺎﺩﻴﺙ ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻴﻔﺔ ﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺤﺙ ﺜﻡ ﻭﻤﺭﺍﺤﻠﻬ، ﻋﻠﻰ ﻀﺭﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻁﺭﻕ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻨﺸﺄﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻗﺒل ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻡ ﻭﺃﻫﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻨﺎﻭﻟﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺭ ﺃﺼل ﺍﻟﺨﻁ ﻜﺫﻟﻙ ﺃﻫﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻭﺵ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺸﻔﺔ ، ﺒﻲ ﻤﺭﻭﺭ ﺍﹰ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﺭ ﺜﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻁﺭﻕ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﻑ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﺒﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺩﻴﻡ ﻭﺇﻋ ﻁﺎﺀ ﻨﺒﺫﺓ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺩﻴﻤﺔ"ﺍﻟﻨﻭﻤﻴﺩﻴﺔ" ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺭﺍﺤل ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻤﺭﺕ ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺩﻴﻤﺔ ﻭﺼﻭﹰﻻ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﻑ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﺒﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺙ "ﺍﻟﺘﻴﻔﻴﻨﺎﻍ".
ﻓﺮج ﺳﻌﺪ ﻓﺮج الماﺟﺮي (2012)
Publisher's website

واﻗﻊ اﻟﺻورة اﻟﻧﺻﻔﯾﺔ وﺗطورھﺎ ﻓﻰ ﻣراﺣل اﻟﻔن اﻟﺗﺷﻛﯾﻠﻲ اﻟﻠﯾﺑﻲ اﻟﻣﻌﺎﺻر

ﺗﺗﻣﺣور ﻣﺷﻛﻠﺔ اﻟدراﺳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺣﺎوﻟﺔ ﻣﻌرﻓﺔ واﻗﻊ اﻟﺻورة اﻟﺷﺧﺻﯾﺔ اﻟﻧﺻﻔﯾﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺣرﻛﺔ اﻟﺗﺷﻛﯾﻠﯾﺔ اﻟﻠﯾﺑﯾﺔ اﻟﻣﻌﺎﺻرة ﻣﻧذ ﺑداﯾﺗﮭﺎ ﺧﻼل اﻟﻘرن اﻟﻣﺎﺿﻲ وﺣﺗﻰ وﻗﺗﻧﺎ وذﻟك ﻟﻺﺟﺎﺑﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺳﺎؤﻻت اﻟرﺳﺎﻟﺔ واﻟﺗﺣﻘق ﻣن ﻓروﺿﮭﺎ ﻟﻐرض ﺗﺣﻘﯾق ،اﻟﺣﺎﺿر أھداﻓﮭﺎ ، اﻟﺗﻲ ﻣن أھﻣﮭﺎ : -ﺗوﺿﯾﺢ اﻟﻘﯾم اﻟﺟﻣﺎﻟﯾﺔ اﻟﺗﻲ ﺗﻘوم ﻋﻠﯾﮭﺎ اﻟﺻورة اﻟﺷﺧﺻﯾﺔ اﻟﻧﺻﻔﯾﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻓن 1 اﻟﺗﺻوﯾر ﺑﺻﻔﺔ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﺑﻣﺧﺗﻠف أﺳﺎﻟﯾﺑﮫ واﺗﺟﺎھﺎﺗﮫ . وأھم ﺳﻣﺎﺗﮭﺎ وﺧﺻﺎﺋﺻﮭﺎ ، -اﻟﺗﻌرف ﻋﻠﻰ واﻗﻊ ﻓن اﻟﺻورة اﻟﺷﺧﺻﯾﺔ اﻟﻧﺻﻔﯾﺔ 2 ﺿﻣن أطﺎر اﻟﺣرﻛﺔ اﻟﺗﺷﻛﯾﻠﯾﺔ اﻟﻠﯾﺑﯾﺔ اﻟﻣﻌﺎﺻرة . -اﻟﻛﺷف ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣدى ﻗدرة اﻟﻔﻧﺎن اﻟﺗﺷﻛﯾﻠﻲ اﻟﻠﯾﺑﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻧﺎول ﻣوﺿوع اﻟﺻورة 3 واﻟﻣوﺿوﻋﻲ ﻷﻋﻣﺎل ، اﻟﺷﺧﺻﯾﺔ اﻟﻧﺻﻔﯾﺔ ﻣن ﺧﻼل اﻟدراﺳﺔ واﻟﺗﺣﻠﯾل اﻟﻌﻠﻣﻲ ، اﻟﻌدﯾد ﻣن اﻟﻔﻧﺎﻧﯾن اﻟﺗﺷﻛﯾﻠﯾﯾن اﻟﻠﯾﺑﯾﯾن اﻟذﯾن ﺗﻧﺎوﻟوا ھذا اﻟﻣوﺿوع ﻣﺣل اﻟدراﺳﺔ واﻟﻛﺷف ﻋن اﻟﻘﯾم اﻟﺟﻣﺎﻟﯾﺔ واﻹﺑداﻋﯾﺔ ﻓﯾﮫ . ﺣﯾث ، وﻗد ﺗﺿﻣﻧت اﻟدراﺳﺔ ﺳﺗﺔ ﻓﺻول، ﺗﺿﻣن اﻟﻔﺻل اﻷول ﻣﻧﮭﺟﯾﺔ اﻟدراﺳﺔ ﻛﻛل وﻓروﺿﮭﺎ وﺣدودھﺎ اﻟزﻣﺎﻧﯾﺔ ،وأھداﻓﮭﺎ ،وأھﻣﯾﺗﮭﺎ ، ﺗم ﻋرض ﻣﺷﻛﻠﺔ اﻟدراﺳﺔ ، واﻟدراﺳﺎت اﻟﺳﺎﺑﻘﺔ اﻟﻣرﺗﺑطﺔ ﺑﮭﺎ ، أﻣﺎ اﻟﻔﺻل اﻟﺛﺎﻧﻲ ،واﻟﻣﻛﺎﻧﯾﺔ وﺗﺣدﯾد ﻣﺻﻠﺣﺎﺗﮭﺎ وﺗوﺿﯾﺢ ﻣﻔﮭوﻣﮭﺎ اﻟﻔﻧﻲ اﻷﻛﺛر ﻋﻣﻘﺎ ً ،ﻓﺗﺿﻣن ﺗﻌرﯾف اﻟﺻورة اﻟﺷﺧﺻﯾﺔ اﻟﻧﺻﻔﯾﺔ ﻣن ﻣﺟرد ﺗﺣﻘﯾق اﻟﺷﺑﮫ وﻧﻘل اﻟﺷﺧﺻﯾﺔ ﻧﻘﻼً ﺣرﻓﯾﺎ ًﺳطﺣﯾﺎ ً، وﺗﺗطرق اﻟﺑﺎﺣث ﻓﻲ ھذا وﻛذﻟك اﻟﻌﻧﺎﺻر اﻟﻣﻛوﻧﺔ ،اﻟﻔﺻل إﻟﻰ أوﺿﺎع رﺳم اﻟﺻورة اﻟﺷﺧﺻﯾﺔ اﻟﻧﺻﻔﯾﺔ ﻣﻊ ذﻛر أﻧواﻋﮭﺎ ﻣن ﺣﯾث ﺗﻧﺎوﻟﮭﺎ ،واﻟﺻﯾﺎﻏﺔ اﻟﺗﺷﻛﯾﻠﯾﺔ ﻟﮫ ،ﻟﮭذا اﻟﻣوﺿوع ﻟﻠﺷﺧﺻﯾﺔ اﻟﻣرﺳوﻣﺔ ، وﺗﻧﺎوﻟت اﻟدراﺳﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻔﺻل اﻟﺛﺎﻟث ﻣن ﺧﻼل ﻣﻧﮭﺞ اﻟﺑﺣث اﻟﺗﺎرﯾﺧﻲ ﻣراﺣل ﺗطور رﺳم اﻟﺻورة اﻟﺷﺧﺻﯾﺔ اﻟﻧﺻﻔﯾﺔ ﺗﺎرﯾﺧﯾﺎ ً ، ﺣﯾث ﯾﺳﺗﻌرض اﻟﺑﺎﺣث ﺗﺎرﯾﺦ رﺳم اﻟﺑورﺗرﯾﮫ ﻣن ﺧﻼل أرﺑﻊ ﻓﺗرات ﺗﺎرﯾﺧﯾﺔ ﻣن ﺗﺎرﯾﺦ اﻟﻔن ، وﻓﯾﮫ اﺳﺗﻌرﺿت ، اﻟﺟزء اﻷول وھو اﻟﺻور اﻟﺷﺧﺻﯾﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺣﺿﺎرات اﻟﻘدﯾﻣﺔ اﻟدراﺳﺔ أھم رﺳوم اﻟﺻور اﻟﺷﺧﺻﯾﺔ اﻟﻧﺻﻔﯾﺔ اﻟﺗﻲ ظﮭرت ﻣن ﺧﻼل اﻟﺣﺿﺎرة وھﯾرﻛﺎﻻﻧوم ،ﻣﺗﻣﺛﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺻور اﻟﺷﺧﺻﯾﺔ اﻟﻣﻛﺗﺷﻔﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣدﯾﻧﺔ ﺑوﻣﺑﺎي ،اﻟروﻣﺎﻧﯾﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻘرن اﻟﺳﺎدس ﻋﺷر ﺣﯾث ﯾﻣﻛن اﻋﺗﺑﺎرھﺎ ﺑداﯾﺔ ﻟرﺳم اﻟﺻور اﻟﺷﺧﺻﯾﺔ وﻣن ،واﻟﻔرﯾﺳﻛو ، ﺑﻣﻔﮭوﻣﮭﺎ اﻟﻣﺗﻌﺎرف ﻋﻠﯾﮫ ، اﻟﺗﻲ ﻛﺎﻧت اﻏﻠﺑﮭﺎ ﻣﻧﻔذة ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺳﯾﻔﺳﺎء ﺛم ﺗﻧﺎوﻟت اﻟدراﺳﺔ ﻓﻲ ھذا اﻟﻔﺻل اﻟﺻور اﻟﺷﺧﺻﯾﺔ ﻟﻣوﻣﯾﺎءات اﻟﻔﯾوم ،اﻟﺗﻲ اﻛﺗﺷﻔت م ،اﻟﺗﻲ ﺗﻌود ﻟﻠﻘرون اﻷوﻟﻰ ﻟﻠﻣﯾﻼد ﻓﻲ ﻣدﯾﻧﺔ اﻟﻔﯾوم ﺧﻼل ﻓﺗرة اﻟوﺟود 1888ﺳﻧﺔ وﻣﺎ ﻣﺛﻠﺗﮫ ﺗﻠك اﻟرﺳوم ﻣن أھﻣﯾﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺎرﯾﺦ رﺳم اﻟﺑورﺗرﯾﮫ ﻣن ،اﻟروﻣﺎﻧﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺻر واﻟﺗﻘﻧﯾﺔ ﺑﺷﻛل ﻏﯾر ﻣﺳﺑوق ﻓﻲ اﻟﻔﻧون اﻟﺳﺎﺑﻘﺔ ،وﻣن ﺛم ﺗطرﻗت ،ﻧﺎﺣﯾﺔ اﻟﻣﻌﺎﻟﺟﺔ ،وﻣﻧﮭﺎ اﻟﻔن اﻟﻣﺳﯾﺣﻲ ،اﻟدراﺳﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺟزء اﻟﺛﺎﻧﻲ إﻟﻰ ﻓﻧون اﻟﻌﺻور اﻟوﺳطﻰ واﻟﻘدﺳﯾﺔ اﻟدﯾﻧﯾﺔ ، ﻣﺗﻣﺛﻼ ﻓﻲ اﻹﯾﻘوﻧﺎت واﻟرﺳوم اﻟدﯾﻧﯾﺔ ، اﻟﺗﻲ ﻛﺎﻧت ﺗﺗﻣﯾز ﺑﺎﻟرﻣزﯾﺔ وﺗطرﻗت اﻟدراﺳﺔ ﻟﻠﻔن اﻹﺳﻼﻣﻲ ، اﻟذي أوﺿﺣت ﻓﯾﮫ اﻧﮫ وﺑﺎﻟرﻏم ﻣن أﺗﺟﺎه اﻟﻔن اﻹﺳﻼﻣﻲ ﻟﻠﻌﻧﺎﺻر اﻟﺗﺟرﯾدﯾﺔ ، اﻟﺗﻲ ﯾﻘوم ﻋﻠﯾﮭﺎ ﻣﺗﻣﺛﻼ ﻓﻲ اﻟزﺧرﻓﺔ اﻟﮭﻧدﺳﯾﺔ واﻟﻧﺑﺎﺗﯾﺔ واﻟﺧطﯾﺔ ﻓﺈن أن ھﻧﺎك اﻟﻌدﯾد ﻣن اﻷﻣﺛﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺎرﯾﺦ اﻟﻔن اﻹﺳﻼﻣﻲ ﻟﺗﻧﺎول اﻟﺻورة اﻟﺷﺧﺻﯾﺔ ، اﻟﺗﻲ ظﮭرت ﻣن ﺧﻼل اﻟﺻور اﻟﻣﻧﻘوﺷﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻧﻘود ﻓﻲ وﻛذﻟك ﻣن ﺧﻼل اﻟﺻور اﻟﺷﺧﺻﯾﺔ اﻟﺗﻲ ، اﻟﺳﻧوات اﻷوﻟﻰ ﻟﻠﻌﺻر اﻹﺳﻼﻣﻲ اﺳﺗﺧدﻣت ﻓﻲ اﻟﻌدﯾد ﻣن اﻟﻛﺗب اﻷدﺑﯾﺔ واﻟﺗﺎرﯾﺧﯾﺔ ﻛرﺳوم ﺗوﺿﯾﺣﯾﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺧﺗﻠف اﻟﻣﻧﺎطق اﻹﺳﻼﻣﯾﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻓﺗرات ﻣﺧﺗﻠﻔﺔ ، واﻟﺟزء اﻟﺛﺎﻟث ﻣن اﻟﻔﺻل اﻟﺛﺎﻟث ﺗﻧﺎوﻟت ﻓﯾﮫ اﻟدراﺳﺔ اﻟﺻورة اﻟﺷﺧﺻﯾﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺻر اﻟﻧﮭﺿﺔ واﻟذي ﯾﻌﺗﺑر ﻣن اﻟﻔﺗرات اﻟﻣﮭﻣﺔ واﻟﺗﺎرﯾﺧﯾﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺎرﯾﺦ اﻟﻔن ﺑﺷﻛل ﻋﺎم واﻟﺻورة اﻟﺷﺧﺻﯾﺔ ﺑﺷﻛل ﺧﺎص وأﻟﻘت اﻟدراﺳﺔ اﻟﺿوء ﻓﻲ ھذا اﻟﺟزء ﻋﻠﻰ أھم اﻟﻔﻧﺎﻧﯾن اﻟذﯾن ﺗﻧﺎوﻟوا اﻟﺻورة اﻟﺷﺧﺻﯾﺔ ،ﻣﺳﺗﻌرﺿﮫ ﻷھم أﻋﻣﺎﻟﮭم وﻣﻧﮭم اﻟﻔﻧﺎن ﻓﺎن أﯾك ،ﻓﻲ ھذه اﻟﺣﻘﺑﺔ اﻟﺗﺎرﯾﺧﯾﺔ ﺛم ﺗﻧﺗﻘل اﻟدراﺳﺔ ،وﻏﯾرھم ،وﺟﯾورﺟﯾوﻧﻰ ،وﻟﯾوﻧﺎردو داﻓﻧﺷﻰ ووأﻟﺑرﺧت دورر ﻣﺗﺗﺑﻌﺎ ﻓﯾﮭﺎ اﻟﺑﺎﺣث ﺗﺗطور رﺳم اﻟﺻورة ، ﻟﻠﻣراﺣل اﻟﻼﺣﻘﺔ ﻣن ﺗﺎرﯾﺦ اﻟﻔن وﻣﺎ ظﮭر ﻓﯾﮭﺎ ﻣن اﺧﺗﻼف ﻓﻲ ،اﻟﺷﺧﺻﯾﺔ اﻟﻧﺻﻔﯾﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻣدارس اﻟﻔﻧﯾﺔ اﻟﻣﺧﺗﻠﻔﺔ اﻷﺳﻠوب واﻟﻣﻌﺎﻟﺟﺔ وﺗوﺿﯾﺢ أھم ﺳﻣﺎت ﻛل ﻣدرﺳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺗﻧﺎوﻟﮭﺎ ﻟﻠﻣوﺿوع ﻣﺣل اﻟدراﺳﺔ واﻟﺗرﻛﯾز ﻋﻠﻰ أھم اﻟﻔﻧﺎﻧﯾن اﻟذﯾن ﺗﻣﯾزوا ﺑرﺳم اﻟﺻورة اﻟﺷﺧﺻﯾﺔ اﻟﻧﺻﻔﯾﺔ واﻟﻛﻼﺳﯾﻛﯾﺔ اﻟﺟدﯾدة ،واﻟرﻛوﻛو ، ﺑداﯾﺔ ﻣن ﻓﺗرة اﻟﺑﺎروك، وأھم أﻋﻣﺎﻟﮭم ﺑﺎﻟﺧﺻوص وﺻوﻻً إﻟﻰ ﻓﺗرة ظﮭور اﻟﻔن اﻟﺣدﯾث ﻣﺗﻣﺛﻼ ﺑداﯾﺔ ﻓﻲ واﻟواﻗﻌﯾﺔ،و اﻟروﻣﺎﻧﺗﯾﻛﯾﺔ اﻻﻧطﺑﺎﻋﯾﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻧﮭﺎﯾﺔ اﻟﻘرن اﻟﺗﺎﺳﻊ ﻋﺷر ﻛﻧﻘطﺔ ﺗﺣول ﻣﮭﻣﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻻﻧﺗﻘﺎل ﻣن اﻟﻔن وﻣن ﺛم ﺗﻧﺗﻘل اﻟدراﺳﺔ ﻟﻣدارس اﻟﻔن اﻟﺣدﯾث اﻷﺧرى ، اﻟﻛﻼﺳﯾﻛﻲ ﻟﻠﻔن اﻟﺣدﯾث واﻟﺗﻌﺑﯾرﯾﺔ ، وﯾﺗﻧﺎول اﻟﻔﺻل اﻟراﺑﻊ اﻟﺻورة ، واﻟﻣﺳﺗﻘﺑﻠﯾﺔ ، واﻟﺗﻛﻌﯾﺑﯾﺔ ،اﻟوﺣﺷﯾﺔ اﻟﺷﺧﺻﯾﺔ اﻟﻧﺻﻔﯾﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻔن اﻟﺗﺷﻛﯾﻠﻲ اﻟﻠﯾﺑﻲ اﻟﻣﻌﺎﺻر ،اﻟذي ﻣن ﺧﻼﻟﮫ اﺳﺗﻌرﺿت واﻟﺛﻘﺎﻓﯾﺔ ﺧﻼل ﻓﺗرة اﻟﺣﻛم اﻟﻌﺛﻣﺎﻧﻲ ، اﻟدراﺳﺔ ﺑداﯾﺔ ﺑﺷﻛل ﻣوﺟز اﻟﺣﯾﺎة اﻟﻔﻛرﯾﺔ واﻻﺳﺗﻌﻣﺎر اﻻﯾطﺎﻟﻲ ﻟﻠﯾﺑﯾﺎ ، اﻟذي ﺧﻠﺻت ﻓﯾﮫ اﻟدراﺳﺔ إﻟﻰ إن ﺧﻼل ﻓﺗرة اﻟﺣﻛم اﻟﻌﺛﻣﺎﻧﻲ واﻻﺳﺗﻌﻣﺎر اﻻﯾطﺎﻟﻲ ﻟﻠﯾﺑﯾﺎ ﻟم ﺗﻠ َق اﻟﺣﯾﺎة اﻟﺛﻘﺎﻓﯾﺔ واﻟﻌﻠﻣﯾﺔ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ واﻟﻔن اﻟﺗﺷﻛﯾﻠﻲ ﺑﺷﻛل ﺧﺎص اﻻھﺗﻣﺎم واﻟرﻋﺎﯾﺔ ﻣﻣﺎ ﻛﺎن ﻟﮫ أﺛره اﻟواﺿﺢ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺄﺧر ظﮭور ﺣﯾث اﺗﺳﻣت ﺗﻠك اﻟﻔﺗرة ﻣن ﺣﯾﺎة اﻟﺷﻌب ،اﻟﺣرﻛﺔ اﻟﺗﺷﻛﯾﻠﯾﺔ اﻟﻠﯾﺑﯾﺔ ﺑﺷﻛﻠﮭﺎ اﻟﺣﻘﯾﻘﻲ واﻟﺣرﻣﺎن ، وﻛﺎن ﺟل اھﺗﻣﺎم اﻹﻧﺳﺎن واﻧﺷﻐﺎﻟﮫ ﺑﺗوﻓﯾر اﻟﺣﯾﺎة اﻵﻣﻧﺔ ،اﻟﻠﯾﺑﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﻌوز ﻣن ﺛم ﺗﺳﺗﻌرض اﻟدراﺳﺔ ﺑﺷﻛل ﻋﺎم ، اﻟﻣﺳﺗﻘرة ﺑﻌﯾد اً ﻋن ھﯾﻣﻧﺔ اﻟﻘوى اﻷﺟﻧﺑﯾﺔ ﺳﻣﺎت واﺗﺟﺎھﺎت اﻟﺣرﻛﺔ اﻟﺗﺷﻛﯾﻠﯾﺔ اﻟﻠﯾﺑﯾﺔ اﻟﻣﻌﺎﺻرة ﻓﻲ ﻣراﺣﻠﮭﺎ اﻟﻣﺧﺗﻠﻔﺔ ﻣﻧذ ﺑداﯾﺗﮭﺎ ﻣﺑﯾﻧﺔ أھم ﻣراﺣﻠﮭﺎ وﺗطورھﺎ ،ﺛم ﺗﻠﻘﻰ اﻟدراﺳﺔ اﻟﺿوء ﺑﺷﻛل ﻣن ،وﺣﺗﻰ ﯾوﻣﻧﺎ ھذا اﻟﺗﻔﺻﯾل ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣراﺣل ﺗﺗطور رﺳم اﻟﺻورة اﻟﺷﺧﺻﯾﺔ اﻟﻧﺻﻔﯾﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺣرﻛﺔ اﻟﺗﺷﻛﯾل اﻟﻠﯾﺑﻲ واﺳﺗﻌراض ﻷھم اﻟﻔﻧﺎﻧﯾن اﻟذﯾن ﺗﻧﺎوﻟوا اﻟﻣوﺿوع ﻣﺣل اﻟدراﺳﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻔﺗرات وﺗﻣﯾزوا ﻓﯾﮫ ، وﻗﺎﻣت ، اﻟزﻣﻧﯾﺔ اﻟﻣﺧﺗﻠﻔﺔ ﻟﮭذه اﻟﺣرﻛﺔ ، اﻟذﯾن أوﻟوھﺎ أھﻣﯾﺔ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ اﻟدراﺳﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻔﺻل اﻟﺧﺎﻣس وﻣن ﺧﻼل اﻟﻣﻧﮭﺞ اﻟﺗﺣﻠﯾﻠﻲ ، اﻟذي ﯾﻘوم ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﺗﺣﻠﯾل ﺗﺗﻧﺎول اﻟدراﺳﺔ ﻋرض وﺗﺣﻠﯾل ﻣﺧﺗﺎرات ﻣن اﻷﻋﻣﺎل ، اﻟﻌﻠﻣﻲ واﻟﻣوﺿوﻋﻲاﻟﺗﺻوﯾرﯾﺔ ﻟﻣوﺿوع اﻟﺻورة اﻟﺷﺧﺻﯾﺔ ﻟﻌدد ﻣن اﻟﻔﻧﺎﻧﯾن ﻓﻰ ﻓﺗرات ﻣﺧﺗﻠﻔﺔ ﻣن اﻟﺣرﻛﺔ اﻟﺗﺷﻛﯾﻠﯾﺔ اﻟﻠﯾﺑﯾﺔ ، وھم ﻋوض ﻋﺑﯾدة ،وﻋﻠﻲ ﻗﺎﻧﺎ ، ورﻣﺿﺎن اﻟﺑﻛﺷﯾﺷﻲ، اﻟذﯾن ﻛﺎن ﻟﮭم إﻧﺗﺎﺟﮭم اﻟﻔﻧﻲ اﻟﻣﺗﻣﯾز ﻟﮭذا ، وﻣﺣﻣود اﻟﺣﺎﺳﻲ ، وﻋﺑد اﻟرزاق اﻟرﯾﺎﻧﻲ اﻟﻣوﺿوع ﻣﺣل اﻟدراﺳﺔ وﻣن ﺧﻼل اﻟﻔﺻل اﻟﺳﺎدس ﯾﺗم ﻋرض اﻟﻧﺗﺎﺋﺞ واﻟﺗوﺻﯾﺎت وﻛﺎﻧت ﻧﺗﺎﺋﺞ اﻟدراﺳﺔ ﻛﺎﻵﺗﻲ : -ﺗم ﺗﺣدﯾد ﻣﻔﮭوم واﺿﺢ ﯾﻌﺗﻣد ﻋﻠﻰ أﺳس ﻓﻧﯾﺔ ﺻﺣﯾﺣﺔ ﻟﻠﺻورة اﻟﺷﺧﺻﯾﺔ 1 اﻟﻧﺻﻔﯾﺔ ، ﻣن ﺣﯾث ھﻲ ﻟﯾﺳت ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺗﺳﺟﯾﻠﯾﺔ ﺳطﺣﯾﺔ ﻣﻊ اﻟﺷﺧﺻﯾﺔ اﻟﻣرﺳوﻣﺔ ﻟﻣﺟرد ﻧﻘل اﻟﺷﺑﮫ وإﻧﻣﺎ ھﻲ اﺑﻌد ﻣن ذﻟك وأﻛﺛر ﻋﻣﻘﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻘراءة اﻟﻌﻣﯾﻘﺔ ﻟﻠﺷﺧﺻﯾﺔ واﻟﻛﺷف ﻋن أﺑﻌﺎدھﺎ اﻟﻧﻔﺳﯾﺔ ، اﻟﺗﻲ ﯾظﮭر ﻓﯾﮭﺎ اﻟﻔﻧﺎن اﻧﻔﻌﺎﻻﺗﮫ اﻟداﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ھذه اﻟﺷﺧﺻﯾﺔ ﻓﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ إﻟﻰ ﺗﻣﯾز اﻟﺷﺧﺻﯾﺔ وﺗﻔردھﺎ ﯾﺳﻌﻰ اﻟﻔﻧﺎن ﻣن ﺧﻼل اﻟﻣوﺿوع إﻟﻰ ﻋﻣل ﻓﻧﻲ ﯾﺗﻣﺗﻊ ﺑﺷروط ﻓﻧﯾﺔ وﻗﯾم ﺟﻣﺎﻟﯾﺔ . -ﺗم ﺗﺣﻘﯾق ﺻﺣﺔ ﻓرﺿﯾﺔ اﻟدراﺳﺔ ، اﻟﺗﻲ ﻣﻔﺎدھﺎ إن رﺳم اﻟﺻورة اﻟﺷﺧﺻﯾﺔ ﻟم 2 ﯾﻠق اﻻھﺗﻣﺎم ﺑﺎﻟﻘدر اﻟﻛﺎﻓﻲ ﻣن اﻟﻔﻧﺎﻧﯾن اﻟﺗﺷﻛﯾﻠﯾن اﻟﻠﯾﺑﯾﯾن ﺑﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻣراﺣل اﻷوﻟﻰ ﻟﻠﺣرﻛﺔ اﻟﺗﺷﻛﯾﻠﯾﺔ اﻟﻠﯾﺑﯾﺔ اﻟﻣﻌﺎﺻرة ، اﻟﺗﻲ ﯾرﺟﻊ أﺳﺑﺎﺑﮭﺎ ﺣﺳب ﻣﺎ أظﮭرﺗﮫ اﻟدراﺳﺔ واﻟظروف اﻟﻣﺣﯾطﺔ ﺑﮭﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺑداﯾﺎﺗﮭﺎ ،وﺧﻼل اﺳﺗﻌراﺿﮭﺎ ﻟﻠﺣرﻛﺔ اﻟﺗﺷﻛﯾﻠﯾﺔ اﻟﻠﯾﺑﯾﺔ وﻣﻌﺎھد ، إﻟﻰ ﻏﯾﺎب دور اﻟﻣؤﺳﺳﺎت اﻟﺗﻌﻠﯾﻣﯾﺔ اﻟﻣﺗﺧﺻﺻﺔ ﻣن ﻛﻠﯾﺎت ﻓﻧون ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ إﻟﻰ ﻏﯾﺎب اﻟﻣراﺳم اﻟﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺗﻌﻠﯾم اﻟرﺳم وﻓق ﻣﻧﺎھﺞ أﻛﺎدﯾﻣﯾﺔ ﺻﺣﯾﺣﺔ وﻛذﻟك ﻗﻠﺔ اﻟﻧوادي واﻟﺟﻣﻌﯾﺎت اﻟﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻔن اﻟﺗﺷﻛﯾﻠﻲ ﺧﻼل ﺗﻠك اﻟﻔﺗرة ﻣن اﻟﻧﺻف اﻷول ﻣن اﻟﻘرن اﻟﻌﺷرﯾن واﻟﺗﻲ ﻛﺎن ﻟﮭﺎ أﺛرھﺎ اﻟﺳﻠﺑﻲ ﻟﻠﺣرﻛﺔ اﻟﺗﺷﻛﯾﻠﯾﺔ ﺑﺻﻔﺔ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ وﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻧﺎول ﻣوﺿوع اﻟﺻورة اﻟﺷﺧﺻﯾﺔ ﺑﺻﻔﺔ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ،اﻟذﯾن أُﺗﯾﺣت ﻟﻠﺑﻌض ، -أظﮭرت اﻟدراﺳﺔ إن اﻟﻔﻧﺎﻧﯾن اﻟﺗﺷﻛﯾﻠﯾﯾن ﻣن اﻟﺟﯾل اﻟﺛﺎﻧﻲ 3 ﻣﻧﮭم ﻓرﺻﺔ اﻟدراﺳﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺧﺎرج ، اﻟذﯾن اﺗﺟﮭوا ﻓﻲ أﻋﻣﺎﻟﮭم إﻟﻰ ﺻﯾﻎ وﻣﻌﺎﻟﺟﺎت ﺗﻌﺗﻣد ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﺣداﺛﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻣﻌﺎﻟﺟﺔ واﻟﻣوﺿوع ، واﻟذﯾن وﻣن ﺧﻼل ﻣﺣﺎوﻻﺗﮭم ﻓﻲ اﻟﺗﺟدﯾد ﻓﻲ ، اﻷﺳﺎﻟﯾب واﻟﺗﻘﻧﯾﺔ اﻟﻣﺳﺗﺧدﻣﺔ ﻟم ﯾﺗﻧﺎوﻟوا ﻣوﺿوع اﻟﺻورة اﻟﺷﺧﺻﯾﺔ ﺑﻣﻔﮭوﻣﮭﺎ اﻟذي أوﺿﺢ ﺗﻧﺎول اﻟﻌدﯾد ، اﻟذي ﺑﯾﻧﺗﮫ اﻟدراﺳﺔ ﻓﻲ اﺳﺗﻌراﺿﮭﺎ ﻟﺗﺎرﯾﺦ اﻟﻔن اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻣﻲ ﻣن اﻟﻔﻧﺎﻧﯾن اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻣﯾﯾن ﻣوﺿوع اﻟﺻورة اﻟﺷﺧﺻﯾﺔ ﺑﺻﯾﻎ وﻣﻌﺎﻟﺟﺎت ﺣدﯾﺛﺔ ﻛﺎﻟﺗﻲ .وﻏﯾرھم ، وﻣودرﯾﺎﻧﻲ ، وﻛﺎﻛوﺷﻛﺎ ،ﻧﺟدھﺎ ﻋﻧد ﺑﯾﻛﺎﺳو وأﺛرھﺎ اﻻﯾﺟﺎﺑﻲ ﻓﻲ ، -ﺑﯾﻧت اﻟدراﺳﺔ دور اﻷﻛﺎدﯾﻣﯾﺎت واﻟﻣؤﺳﺳﺎت اﻟﺗﻌﻠﯾﻣﯾﺔ 4 وﻣن ﺿﻣﻧﮭﺎ ﻣوﺿوع ، اﻟﺗﻧوع ﻓﻲ ﺗﻧﺎول اﻟﻣوﺿوﻋﺎت اﻟﻣﺧﺗﻠﻔﺔ ﻣن ﻗﺑل اﻟﺧرﯾﺟﯾن اﻟﺻورة اﻟﺷﺧﺻﯾﺔ ﺣﯾث أﺻﺑﺢ اﻟﻔﻧﺎﻧون اﻟﺷﺑﺎب أﻛﺛر ﺗﻧﺎو ﻻً ﻟﮭذا اﻟﻣوﺿوع ﺑﺻﯾﻎ أﻛﺎدﯾﻣﯾﺔ ﺻﺣﯾﺣﺔ ﻧﺗﯾﺟﺔ ﻟﻠﻣﮭﺎرات اﻟﺗﻲ اﻛﺗﺳﺑوھﺎ ﺧﻼل دراﺳﺗﮭم . وﺿﺣت اﻟدراﺳﺔ اﻧﮫ ﻻ ﺗوﺟد ﺗواﺻل وﺗﺄﺛر ﺑﺎﻟﺗﺟﺎرب اﻟﺳﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﺑﯾن اﻷﺟﯾﺎل 5 واﻷﺳﺎﻟﯾب اﻟﺗﻲ ﺗﻧﺎوﻟت ﻣوﺿوع اﻟﺻورة اﻟﺷﺧﺻﯾﺔ ، اﻟﻣﺧﺗﻠﻔﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺻﯾﻎ اﻟﻣﻌﺎﻟﺟﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺷﻛل اﻟﻣطﻠوب.وﺳﺑل اﻟﺗﻐﻠب ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﺳﻠﺑﯾﺎت ، -اﻟﺧروج ﺑﺑﻌض اﻟﺗوﺻﯾﺎت ﻟﺗﻌزﯾز اﻻﯾﺟﺎﺑﯾﺎت. Abstract The portrait situation and its development phases in contemporary Libyan plastic arts movement. The problem of the study pivoted on trying to figure out the reality of the portrait in contemporary Libyan plastic arts movement since its inception during the last century up to the present, to answer the study requisitions and check assumptive purpose for achieving its objectives which include: 1-Clarifying aesthetic valuesthat portrait depends on them inpainting artsgenerally with its various methods and trends. 2 - Recognize the reality of portrait art, and the most important traits and characteristics within the framework of contemporary Libyan plasticartsmovement. 3 - Detect the ability of Libyan artists who dealt with the subject of portrait art through studying and scientific and objective analyzing,for artworks of many of Libyanplasticartists who studiedthissubject, and disclosureitsaesthetic and creative values. The study included six chapters, the first chapter included a whole study methodology, then displayed the problem of the study, and its importance, objectives, assumptions , the temporal and spatial limits, determiningits interests and associated previous studies. Chapter II, included the definition of portrait art, clarifying the artistic concept of it which is most deeper than just achieving the similarities and imitate character literally and superficial, and in this chapter the researcher reached to the positions of painting portrait, as well as the components of this subject, and its drafting, with mention for the typesofthe painted character. In the thirdchapter the study took up the development stages of painting portrait historically through historical research course, where the researcher displayed the history of painting through four historical periods of art history: The first part was about the portrait in ancient civilizations, and the studydisplayedthe most important paints emerged through Romanian civilization, represented by those discovered in Bombay city, and Herkalnom in the sixteenth century which can be considered the beginning of portrait painting with its customary concept, which were mostly executed by mosaics and fresco. Then the study handled in this chapter the portraits of Fayoum mummies which discovered in 1888, and returned to initial centuries A.D. in Fayoum during Roman presence in Egypt, and its importance represented in history of the portrait unprecedented treatment and technique in prior arts. In the second part the study discussed the arts at Middle Ages, including Christian art, represented by icons and religious paintings which werecharacterized by symbolism, and sacred religious. Then the study broached to the Islamic art, which showed that although the underlying direction of Islamic art was to abstract elements, represented by the geometric decoration , plant and linear, there were many examples in Islamic history art dealing with portrait, which emerged through the image engraved on coins in the early years of Islam era, as well as through portraits that had been used in manyliterary and historical books as illustrative paints in various Muslim regions at different periods. The third part was about the portrait at the Renaissance, which considered as one of the important and historical periods in the art history generally and portrait particularly and the study illuminated in this part on the most important artists who dealt with portrait in this historical period, displaying their most important works, as van Eyck, Albrecht Dorer , Leonardo Da Vinci, Giorgione, and others. Then the study moved to the subsequent phases of art history, andthe researcher tracing the portrait development in different technical schools, and what differences appeared in style and treatment and clarified the most important features of each school in their approach to the considerationsubject, and focused on the most important artists who had distinguished themselves inportraitpainting, and their most important works in particular beginning of Baroque period, Rococo, new-classical, romantic, and realism, leading to the emergence of modern art, represented in the beginning of Impressionism at the end of the nineteenth century as a turning important point in transition from classical art to modern art. Then the study moved to the other modern art schools, as Brutalism, Cubism, Futurism, Expressionism. Chapter IV dealt with the portrait painting in the Libyan contemporary plastic art, which through it the study briefly displayed initially the intellectual and cultural life during the period of Ottoman rule and Italian colonialism of Libya, which concluded that during that period the cultural and scientific life generally and the plastic art particularly, had not received any attention or care, which had its clear impact on the real movement delay of the Libyan Plastic art, where that period of life marked Libyan people by destitution and deprivation, and the most important work and concern was providing a safe and stable life away from the domination of foreign powers. Then the study generally displayed the attributes and trends of Libyan contemporaryPlasticarts in its various phases since its inception to the present day, indicating to the most important stages and evolution, and then highlights in details the stages of painting portrait development movement in Libyan plastic arts and displayed the most important artists who took the matter under study in different periods for this movement, and placed on it aparticular importance, and they haddistinguished in it. in Chapter V, through analytical method, which is based on scientific and objective analysis, the study addressed view and analyze to a selection of portrait artworks for many Libyan artists, as Awad Obeida, Ali Ghana, Ramadan Bakshishy, Mahmoud Hassi, and Abdul Razzaq Riani, who had a distinguish artistic production about this subject. through Chapter VI the results and recommendations were displayed and these results as follows: 1–Aclear concept were identified relied on correct technical bases for portrait , since it is not a recorded superficial relation with thepainted personalityandsimply copy similarities but further more in-depth with deep personality reading and disclosure of its psychological dimensions, which show the artist the emotions of this personality, in addition to personal excellence and uniqueness ,the artist seeks through the subject to make an artwork with technical conditions and aesthetic values. 2 - The hypothesis of the study was achieved, explaining that the portrait painting had not received enough attention from Libyans artists especially in the initial stages of the contemporary Libyan plastic art movement returning causes as shown by the study and during its displaying for the Libyan plastic art movement, and the initial surrounding circumstances, to the absence of the role of educational specialized institutions as arts schools, and institutes, in addition to the absence of ceremonies for teaching painting according to correct academiccourse, as well as the lack of clubs and societies forplasticart during the period from the first half of twentieth century, which had a negative impact of the plastic art movement in general and on portrait painting subject in particular. 3-The study showed that artists of the second generation whomsome of them had the opportunity to study abroad, and turned in their work to formulas and treatments relied on modernity in treatment and subject, and through their attempts at innovation in used methods and techniques did not take portrait subject with its concept, which shown by the study in its review of world art history, which explained that many international artists dealt with portrait subject with modern formats and treatments such as those found at Picasso and Modriani, Cacochka and others. 4 - The study showed the role of academies and educational institutions, and their positive impact on diversity of handling various topics by graduates, including the subject of the portrait where young artists became more addressed to this topic in correct academic formats as a result of the skills they had acquired during their studies. 5 - The study clarified that there is no communication and influenced by past experience between the different generations in the modes of treatment, and methods that addressed the subject of the portrait as required. 6 - coming out with some recommendations to enhance the positives
ﺟﻣﺎل أﺣﻣد ﻣﺻطﻔﻰ (2012)
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