Publication List for faculty of Fine Arts and Media

Publication statistics for faculty of Fine Arts and Media

  • Icon missing? Request it here.
  • 2

    Conference paper

  • 14

    Journal Article

  • 0

    Book

  • 0

    Chapter

  • 2

    PhD Thesis

  • 65

    Master Thesis

  • 0

    Final Year Project

  • 0

    Technical Report

  • 0

    Unpublished work

  • 0

    Document

USAWIRI WA UJINSIA KATIKA FILAMU: UCHUNGUZI WA MATUMZI YA LUGHA KATIKA FILAMU ZA STEVEN KANUMBA

ITHIBATI Aliyeweka saini hapa chini anathibitisha kuwa ameisoma Tasnifu hii iitwayo: “Usawiri wa Ujinsia Katika Filamu: Uchunguzi wa Matumzi ya Lugha Katika Filamu za Steven Kanumba”, na kupendekeza ikubaliwe na Chuo Kikuu Huria cha Tanzania kwa ajili ya kukamilisha masharti ya Digrii ya Umahiri katika Kiswahili ya Chuo Kikuu Huria cha Tanzania. ________________________ Prof. Emmanuel Mbogo (Msimamizi) Tarehe: _________________ HAKI MILIKI Haki ya kunakili tasinifu hii inalindwa na Mkataba wa Berne, Sheria ya Haki ya Kunakili ya mwaka 1999 na mikataba mingine ya sheria za kitaifa na kimataifa zinazolinda mali za kitaaluma. Haki zote zimehifadhiwa. Hairuhusiwi kuiga au kunakili kwa njia yoyote ile, iwe ama kazi nzima au sehemu ya Tasnifu hii, isipokuwa shughuli halali, kwa ajili ya utafiti, kujisomea, au kufanya marejeo ya kitaaluma bila kibali cha maandishi cha Mkuu wa Kurugenzi ya Taaluma za Uzamili kwa niaba ya Chuo Kikuu Huria cha Tanzania. IKIRARI Mimi Ahmad Abdalla Suwed, nathibitisha kwamba tasinifu hii ni kazi yangu ya halisi na kwamba haijawahi kuwasilishwa na haitawasilishwa katika Chuo Kikuu kingine kwa ajili ya Digrii yoyote. Saini _______________________ Tarehe _______________________ TABARUKU Natabaruku kazi hii kwa wazazi wangu kwa mapenzi yao kwangu na kunisomesha hadi leo nimefikia hatua hii kitaaluma. SHUKRANI Kwanza kabisa kabla napenda kutoa shukurani zangu kwa Mwenyezi Mungu Allah Subhanahu Wataalah kwa kunijaalia afya njema kipindi chote cha masomo yangu, kunipa nguvu, uwezo, akili, busara na maarifa katika kipindi chote cha masomo yangu ya uzamili. Nasema kwa unyenyekevu mkuu, Alhamdulillah Rabbilaalamina. Pili, shukurani za pekee ni kwa wazazi wangu kwa kunizaa, kunilea, kunisomesha. Kwa uvumilivu wao kuwa mbali nami hasa katika kipindi chote nilichoishi Tanzania kwa ajili ya masomo yangu ya uzamili. Nawaombea maisha marefu yenye afya na baraka tele! Tatu, napenda kutoa shukurani zangu za dhati kwa Msimamizi wangu Prof. Emmanuel Mbogo kwa kunilea kitaaluma na kunikuza katika misingi ya nadharia na vitendo katika fasihi ya Kiswahili. Kunifunza na kunipa miongozo juu ya filamu. Namuombea afya njema na maisha marefu ili walio azidi kuwa hazina ya taaluma kwa wenye kiu ya kuitafuta. Nne, napenda kuwashukuru wahojiwa wangu wote walioshiriki katika utafiti huu kwa ukarimu na ushirikiano walionipa kipindi chote nilichokuwa uwandani. Nitakuwa mchahe wa fadhira nisipotoa shukrani zangu kwa watanzania wote walionifunza Kiswahili nikaweza kuishi bila shida Tanzania. Namshukuru Bi. Hadija Jilala kwa kunifunza lugha ya Kiswahili na kunipa changamoto za kitaaluma juu ya filamu ya Kanumba na hasa mswada wake wa Kanumba na Fasihi ya Kiswahili ambao ulinipa chachu ya kutafiti eneo hili kwa kutumia filamu za Kanumba. Nitakuwa mchache wa fadhira nisipotoa shukurani kwa wanaidara wote wa idara ya lugha na fasihi kwa maoni na miongozo yao hadi leo nimefanikiwa. IKISIRI Utafiti huu unahusu usawiri wa ujinsia katika filamu uchunguzi wa matumizi ya lugha katika filamu za Steven Kanumba. Lengo kuu la utafiti huu ni kuchunguza usawiri wa kijinsia katika lugha ya filamu za Steven Kanumba ili kuona ni jinsi gani lugha inatumika kusawiri masuala ya kijinsia katika jamii. Utafiti huu ulitumia mbinu nne za ukusanyaji data ambazo ni; maktaba, usaili, dodoso na majadiliano ya vikundi. Sampuli ya utafiti huu iliteuliwa kwa kutumia mbinu ya; madhumuni maalum na utuezi nasibu wa sampuli. Utafiti huu umegundua kuwa, filamu za Kanumba zimetumia lugha kwa namna ambayo inasawiri mahusiano ya kijinsia katika jamii mbalimbali hususani jamii ya Watanzania na Afrika. Matokeo ya utafiti huu yamebainisha kuwa Kanumba katika filamu zake ametumia zaidi kejeli na dhihaka kuliko vipengele vingine vya lugha. Matumizi ya kejeli na dhihaka yanaonyesha ndiyo mbinu ya kifani inayotawala kazi za Kanumba. Utafiti huu umedhihirisha kuwepo kwa usawiri wa mwanamke kwa namna mbalimbali. Katika kazi za fasihi za Kanumba imedhihirika kwamba mwanamke anasawiriwa kama mama, chombo cha starehe, kiumbe dhaifu na tegemezi, kiumbe kisichokuwa na maamuzi binafsi, chanzo cha matatizo, msaliti, na ni kiumbe mvumilivu na mnyenyekevu. Utafiti huu pia umebaini kuwa, matumizi ya lugha katika filamu za Steven Kanumba yanadhihirisha tofauti baina ya mwanamke na mwanaume katika jamii. Imegundulika kuwa kuna mahusiano tofauti baina ya mwanamke na mwanaume. Tofauti ya mahusiano haya imejengeka katika misingi ya kijamii ambapo tangu awali jamii inawaona wanaume ni tofauti na wanawake. YALIYOMO ITHIBATI ii HAKI MILIKI iii TABARUKU v SHUKRANI vi IKISIRI viii ORODHA YA VIELELEZO xiii ORODHA YA CHATI xiv SURA YA KWANZA 1 1.0 UTANGULIZI WA JUMLA 1 1.1 Utangulizi 1 1.2 Usuli wa Tatizo 1 1.3 Tatizo la Utafiti 3 1.3 Lengo la Utafiti 4 1.3.1 Lengo Kuu la Utafiti 4 1.3.2 Malengo Mahususi 4 1.4 Maswali ya Utafiti 4 1.5 Umuhimu wa Utafiti 5 1.6 Mipaka ya Utafiti 5 1.7 Uzingativu wa Maadili 6 1.8 Matatizo ya Utafiti 10 1.9 Historia ya Kanumba 10 1.9.1 Sehemu Ifuatayo Inaonyesha Kazi Alizofanya 14 1.9.2 Tuzo Alizowahi Kupata 14 1.9.3 Tawasifu ya Kanumba (Kaiandika Mwenyewe) 14 1.10 Muundo wa Tasnifu 17 1.11 Hitimisho 18 SURA YA PILI 19 2.0 MAPITIO YA MAANDIKO NA KIUNZI CHA NADHARIA 19 2.1 Utangulizi 19 2.2 Historia ya Filamu Afrika 19 2.3 Historia na Maendeleo ya Filamu Nchini Tanzania 21 2.3.1 Filamu Kipindi cha Ukoloni 22 2.3.2 Filamu Baada ya Ukoloni 23 2.4 Tafiti Tangulizi Kuhusu Filamu 26 2.5 Vipengele vya Lugha 27 2.5.1 Tamathali za Semi 27 2.5.2 Sitiari 28 2.5.3 Tashibiha 30 2.5.4 Tashihisi 30 2.5.5 Ishara 31 2.6 Tafiti za Lugha Katika Kazi za Fasihi 31 2.7 Mwega wa Kinadharia 34 2.8 Hitimisho 36 SURA YA TATU 37 3.0 MBINU ZA UTAFITI 37 3.1 Utangulizi 37 3.2 Eneo la Utafiti 37 3.3 Kundi Lengwa 38 3. 4 Sampuli na Mbinu za Uteuzi wa Sampuli 40 3.4.1 Uteuzi wa Madhumuni Maalumu 40 3.4.2 Uteuzi Nasibu 42 3.7 Utafiti Tangulizi 45 3.7 Mbinu za Ukusanyaji wa Data 50 3.7.1 Mbinu ya Maktaba 51 3.7.2 Mbinu ya Usaili 52 3.7.3 Mbinu ya Dodoso 54 3.7.4 Mbinu ya Majadiliano ya Vikundi 55 3.8 Zana za Kukusanyia Data 56 3.9 Uchambuzi wa Data 57 3.10 Hitimisho 58 SURA YA NNE 60 4.0 UWASILISHAJI NA UCHAMBUZI WA DATA 60 4.1 Utangulizi 60 4.2 Muhtasari wa Filamu Zilizofanyiwa Uchunguzi 60 4.2.1 Moses 60 4.2.2 My Valentine 61 4.2.3 Johari 61 4.3 Kubainisha Vipengele vya Lugha Katika Filamu za Kanumba 62 4.4 Mdafao na Ujitokezaji wa Vipengele vya Lugha 62 4.5 Usawiri wa Ujinsia katika Filamu za Kanumba 65 4.6 Usawiri wa Nafasi ya Mwanamke Katika Filamu za Kanumba 71 4.6.1 Mwanamke Kama Mama 72 4.6.2 Mwanamke Kama Chombo cha Starehe 74 4.6.3 Mwanamke Kama Kiumbe Dhaifu na Tegemezi 76 4.6.4 Mwanamke Kama Kiumbe Kisichokuwa na Maamuzi Binafsi 78 4.6.5 Mwanamke Kama Chanzo cha Matatizo 79 4.6.5 Mwanamke Kama Msaliti 80 4.6.6 Mwanamke Kama Kiumbe Mvumilivu na Mnyenyekevu 81 4.7 Tofauti ya Mwanamke na Mwanaume Katika Filamu za Kanumba 82 4.8 Hitimisho 84 SURA YA TANO 86 5.0 MUHTASARI, HITIMISHO NA MAPENDEKEZO 86 5.1 Utangulizi 86 5.2 Muhtasari wa Matokeo ya Utafiti 86 5.3 Hitimisho 89 5.4 Mapendekezo 91 MAREJEO 92 VIAMBATISHO 98 ORODHA YA VIELELEZO Kielelezo 3.1 Washiriki wa Utafiti 44 Kielelezo 4.1 Mdafao wa Ujitokezaji wa Vipengele vya Lugha 63 Kielelezo 4.2 Matokeo Kulingana na Jinsi 68 Kielelezo 4.3 Mabadiliko ya Filamu za Kanumba Kuhusu Mwanamke 69 Kielelezo 4.5 Nafasi ya Mwanamke Katika Jamii 71 ORODHA YA CHATI Chati 4 .1 Mdafao wa Vipengele vya Lugha Katika Filamu za Kanumba 63 Chati 4.2 Matokeo ya Dodoso 67 SURA YA KWANZA 1.0 UTANGULIZI WA JUMLA 1.1 Utangulizi Lugha ni mhimili wa kazi yoyote ya sanaa. Watunzi wa kazi za fasihi hutumia lugha inayoambatana na utendaji wa wahusika ili kujenga, kukuza mgogoro baina ya wahusika wa tamthiliya na kupeleka simulio mbele. Sura hii ni sura tangulizi ambayo inabainisha tatizo la utafiti lililofanyiwa uchunguzi katika utafiti huu. Sura hii imegawanywa katika sehemu saba. Sehemu ya kwanza inahusu usuli wa tatizo, sehemu ya pili inaelezea tatizo la tafiti, sehemu ya tatu inahusu malengo ya utafiti, sehemu ya nne inahusu maswali ya utafiti ambayo utafiti huu ulikusudia kuyajibu na umuhimu wa utafiti. Sehemu ya tano inajadili vikwazo ambavyo mtafiti alikabiliana navyo wakati wa ukusanyaji wa data za utafiti huu. Aidha, sehemu ya sita ya sura hii inabainisha masuala ya kiitikeli (kimaadili) ambayo mtafiti aliyazingatia kabla, wakati na baada ya kukamilisha zoezi la uksanyaji data za utafiti. Sehemu ya saba inaelezea matokeo ya utafiti wa awali ambao ulifanyika kabla ya utafiti huu kufanyika. 1.2 Usuli wa Tatizo Tamthilia ni utanzu wa fasihi ambao huwa na majibizano ya wahusika pamoja na vitendo. Kuna tamthilia andishi na simulizi; na hivyo tuseme tamthilia huweza kuwa kipengele cha fasihi andishi na simulizi (Mulokozi, 1996). Katika siku za hivi karibuni tamthilia hizi zimerekodiwa katika filamu na kuuzwa. Moja ya filamu maarufu nchini Tanzania na katika nchi nyingine za Afrika Mashariki ni filamu za Steven Kanumba. Miongoni mwa filamu zake ni pamoja na Uncle JJ, Family Tears, Wrong Marriage, Young Billionaire, Moses, My Valentine, Johari, Cross My Sin na kadhalika. Filamu hizi, zaidi ya mambo mengine, zinatumia lugha ambayo husawiri mambo kadha wa kadha katika jamii. Miongoni mwa mambo hayo ni suala la uongozi, utawala, siasa, jinsia na mambo mengineyo. Utafiti huu unakusudia kuchunguza jinsi lugha inayotumika katika filamu hizo inavyosawiri suala la jinsia. Fasihi ni kazi ya sanaa inayotumia lugha kuwasilisha ujumbe kwa hadhira kwa njia ya maandishi ama mdomo na vitendo (Mulokozi, 1996). Kwa kutumia tanzu mbalimbali za fasihi tunaweza kubadili mielekeo, mitazamo, tamaduni, imani, mila na desturi za jamii inayohusika katika muktadha na wakati mahsusi. Fasihi inaweza kutumiwa kuzuia au kuchelewesha maendeleo na mapinduzi. Fasihi inasaidia kujifunza utamaduni wa jamii; kuelewa mwelekeo, itikadi na mahitaji yao, na kuwasaidia kuitumia fasihi yao kuendeleza mazingira yao. Hivyo ni wazi kuwa fasihi huweza kuibua masuala mbalimbali yanayoibuka katika jamii na kuleta athari kwa jamii kwa haraka zaidi (Mulokozi, 1983). Fasihi ina tanzu nyingi. Mojawapo ya tanzu za fasihi ni ushairi. Ushairi ni utunzi unaotumia lugha ya mkato yenye mnato na mvuto katika kufikisha ujumbe wake kwa jamii (Mulokozi na Kahigi, 1973). Utafiti huu unachunguza usawiri wa kijinsia katika tamthilia za Kanumba ambazo alitunga ili kuona ni jinsi gani anatumia lugha kuswiri suala la jinsia katika jamii. Aidha kwa kuchunguza matumizi ya lugha katika tamthiliya za Kanumba tutaweza kubaini nafasi ya mwanamke ikilinganishwa na ile ya mwanaume na mahusiano yao katika jamii. Lugha kama zana inayotumiwa na wasanii wa kazi za sanaa katika kufikisha ujumbe kwa jamii huwa na vipengele mbalimbali vya kiisimu. Vipengele hivi hubeba dhana na ujumbe mbalimbali kwa jamii ambayo msanii amelenga ujumbe huo uifikie. Kwa maana hiyo basi, kama kazi ya fasihi filamu huwa na lengo la kuelimisha, kuonya, kuadilisha na kutunza amali za jamii. Dhima zote hizi huwasilishwa kwa kutumia lugha ambapo, mtunzi huteua maneno ambayo huyakusudia yalete athari fulani kwa jamii huku yakisawiri mahusiano ya aina mbalimbali baina ya wahusika wa kike na wa kiume kama wawakilishi wa watu wenye sifa mbalimbali katika jamii. Lugha anayopewa mhusika na msanii humsawiri mhusika huyo kama sura ya jamii nzima endapo mhusika huyo atatumiwa na mtunzi kama mhusika jumui. Hivyo basi, utafiti huu utachunguza matumizi ya lugha katika tamthiliya za Kanumba ili kuona ni jinsi namna anavyotumia lugha kusawiri suala ujinsia katika jamii. 1.3 Tatizo la Utafiti Filamu ni tasnia ambayo imeonyesha kukua kwa kiwango kikubwa na kupendwa na watu wa rika zote nchini na hata nje ya mipaka ya Tanzania. Soko la filamu hizi kwa sasa limekua sana na ni filamu zinazonunuliwa sana kwa sasa. Wasanii wa filamu wanatumia sanaa hii kama njia mojawapo ya kuelimisha jamii, kuonya, kuasa, kukosoa, kuadilisha, kutunza amali za jamii na kueleza hisia na matamanio yao kwa jamii husika. Katika kutimiza dhima hizo, wasanii hao huitumia lugha kisanii ili kujenga maudhui. Lugha inayotumika huwa na dhima kubwa ya kusawiri masuala mbalimbali yakiwemo ya kijinsia. Hata hivyo, kulingana na uelewa wangu hakuna utafiti uliokwisha fanywa kuhusu usawiri wa kijinsia katika lugha inayotumika katika filamu hizo. Utafiti huu sasa unakusudia kuchunguza matumizi ya lugha katika filamu za Steven Kanumba ili kuona ni namna gani vipengele vya lugha vinatumika kusawiri suala la jinsia na hivyo kuziba pengo lililopo sasa. 1.3 Lengo la Utafiti Utafiti huu una malengo ya namna mbili, lengo kuu na malengo mahsusi kama inavyofafanuliwa hapa chini: 1.3.1 Lengo Kuu la Utafiti Lengo kuu la utafiti huu ni kuchunguza usawiri wa kijinsia katika lugha ya filamu za Steven Kanumba ili kuona ni jinsi gani lugha inatumika kusawiri masuala ya kijinsia katika jamii. 1.3.2 Malengo Mahususi Utafiti huu una malengo mahususi matatu. 1. Kubainisha vipengele vya lugha katika filamu za Kanumba 2. Kujadili sababu za uteuzi wa lugha katika kusawiri masuala ya kijinsia 3. Kujadili jinsi vipengele vya lugha vilivyobainishwa vinavyosawiri mahusiano ya kijinsia baina ya wanawake na wanaume 4. Kujadili nafasi ya mwanamke kama inavyosawiriwa na vipengele vya lugha katika filamu za Kanumba 1.4 Maswali ya Utafiti Utafiti huu unakusudia kujibu maswali yafuatayo; 1. Ni vipengele vipi vya lugha vinavyotumika katika filamu za Kanumba? 2. Je, ni kwa nini uteuzi wa lugha ya namna fulani hufanyika katika kusawiri masuala ya kijinsia? 3. Je, vipengele vya lugha vilivyobainishwa katika filamu za Kanumba vinasawiri vipi mahusiano ya kijinsia baina ya wanawake na wanaume? 4. Je, nini nafasi ya mwanamke kama inavyosawiriwa na vipengele vya lugha katika filamu za Kanumba? 1.5 Umuhimu wa Utafiti Umuhimu wa utafiti huu umejikita katika nyanja kuu nne; kwanza, utafiti huu unawasaida wanafunzi wa elimu mitindo, wanaisimu na wanafasihi kuelewa jinsi na upekee wa mwandishi katika uteuzi wa vipengele vya lugha kiisimu katika ujenzi wa kazi za fasihi hususani katika tungo za filamu. Pili; utafiti huu utawasaidia wanafunzi na watafiti wengine kupata marejeleo na pia kuwahimiza watafiti kufanya utafiti zaidi katika kazi za fasihi simulizi na andishi hususani katika tasnia ya filamu.Tatu; utafiti huu unatoa mchango katika historia ya filamu na kutoa mchango wa maarifa kuhusu filamu na nafasi yake katika kuelezea mitazamo ya kijamii na hatimaye utatajirisha maktaba ya vyuoni nchini na duniani kote. 1.6 Mipaka ya Utafiti Utafiti huu umejikita katika kuchunguza matumizi ya lugha katika filamu za Steven Kanumba zilizotungwa kwa lugha ya Kiswahili. Steven Kanumba ameigiza, kuongoza na kutunga filamu nyingi, hivyo basi, siyo rahisi kuchunguza filamu zote za Steven Kanumba. Kwa maana hiyo utafiti huu ulichunguza filamu ambazo Kanumba alitunga hadithi ili kuona yeye kama msanii alikuwa na picha gani kuhusu mahusiano ya mwanamke na mwanaume katika jamii. Filamu zilizochunguzwa ni filamu nne tu ambazo ni Moses, My Valentine, She is My Sister v na Johari. 1.7 Uzingativu wa Maadili Kipengele hiki kinalenga kujadili masuala ya kimaadili yaliyohusika katika utafiti huu na namna mtafiti alivyoweza kuzingatia maadili ya utafiti kabla, wakati na baada ya kukusanya data. Fasili ya utafiti katika fani ya sayansi jamii inasema kwamba ni kitendo kinachohusisha ukusanyaji wa data kutoka kwa watu na wakati mwingine data zinazohusu watu (Padget, 1992; Lee, 1993; Berg, 2004). Hivyo basi, suala la kimaadili katika tafiti za sayansi jamii ni suala ambalo mtafiti hawezi kuliepuka hasa pale anapofanya utafiti wa kitakwimu au usio wa kitakwimu. Kwa mfano, Padget (2004) anabainisha kwamba, masuala ya kimaadili huibuka katika aina zote za utafiti, na utafiti usio wa kitakwimu ukiwemo. Kwa upande wa utafiti huu, ni utafiti wenye sifa za kitakwimu na zisizo za kitakwimu. Hii ina maana kwamba, ni utafiti ambao unatumia mbinu za utafiti wa kitakwimu kwa upande mmoja na usio wa kitakwimu kwa upande mwingine. Hivyo basi, data za utafiti huu zilikusanywa kwa kutumia mbinu ya usaili, dodoso, maktaba na majadiliano ya vikundi. Hii ina maana kwamba, kwa kutumia mbinu hizo, utafiti huu ulihusisha makundi ya watu tofauti tofauti, asasi na pia mahusiano ya kibinadamu na tamaduni zao. Kwa maana hiyo, ni dhahiri kwamba, kwa kufanya hivi tusingeweza kuepuka masuala ya kiamaadili na kanuni zake katika kufanya utafiti huu. Daymon na Holloway (2002) wanasisitiza kuwa wakati wa kukusanya data kupitia mahusiano ya kijamii ni muhimu kuweka mkazo wa karibu katika masuala ya kimaadili kwa sababu kuna vipengele vinayohusiana na mchakato wa kukusanya data. Masuala ya kimaadili ambayo yanapaswa kuzingatiwa katika utafiti ni pamoja na usiri, uwazi, utiifu, ushiriki wa hiari ama kujitolea kwa wahojiwa bila kulazimishwa, kuomba idhini na ruhusa ya kufanya utafiti katika maeneo ya utafiti, na uvumilivu. Haki za kisheria na vipengele vya kimaadili lazima vizingatiwe katika mbinu zote za utafiti kama ni za kitakwimu au si za kitakwimu (tazama Weiss, 1994; Lofland na Lofland 1995; Silverman, 2005; Belk, 2006). Baada ya kumaliza kuandaa pendekezo la utafiti na kufuata taratibu zote za uwasilishaji wa pendekezo la utafiti katika jopo la kurugenzi ya elimu ya juu, mtafiti alitakiwa kwenda uwandani kukusanya data. Kwa vile utafiti huu ulihusisha watu na asasi mbalimbali, na kwa vile kila asasi ina sheria, taratibu, kanuni na utamaduni wake, mtafiti alihitaji kupata kibali ambacho kilimsaidia kuingia katika maeneo husika. Kibali hiki kilikuwa ni kitu muhimu sana kwa mtafiti ili kuweza kuingia kwenye maeneo ya utafiti. Suala lingine la kimaadili ambalo mtafiti alisisitiza ni kuwaomba washiriki kushiriki kwa hiari na kujitolea katika kutoa data. Schutt (2006) anasema kuwa, kwa watafiti, ni jambo la muhimu sana kuhakikisha kwamba washiriki wa utafiti wanashiriki kwa kujitolea. Hii ina maana kwamba mtafiti anapaswa kuhakikisha kuwa wahojiwa wanaoshiriki katika kutoa data, watoe data hizo kwa hiari na uamuzi wao binafsi bila kushinikizwa. Hivyo basi, katika mchakato wa kufanya usaili na kugawa dodoso mtafiti alielezea lengo la utafiti kwa washiriki na kuwaomba wajitolee kwa hiari na kushiriki kikamilifu katika usaili na kujibu maswali yaliyopo katika dodoso. Vile vile, wakati wa kutoa maelezo tangulizi ya mwongozo wa maswali ya usaili funge na dodoso mtafiti aliweka bayana malengo ya shughuli husika. Hali kadhalika, alisisitiza kwamba wahojiwa wanaombwa kujibu maswali ya dodoso na usaili kwa hiari. Aidha, mtafiti alitumia muda huo kujadiliana na wahojiwa juu ya lengo kuu la utafiti huu na matarajio yake ili kupata mawazo, maoni na mtazamo wao. Kwa kuambiwa na kuelewa malengo ya utafiti huu, wahojiwa waliweza kutoa mawazo, maoni na mtazamo wao juu ya kile wanachofahamu kuhusiana na utafiti huu kwa uhuru zaidi. Hivyo basi, kwa kufanya haya, ilisaidia zoezi zima la utafiti na kurahisisha shughuli ya ukusanyaji wa data za utafiti huu. Jambo lingine la kimaadili ambalo mtafiti alilizingatia ni kuheshimu ridhaa ya washiriki kabla ya kutumia zana za utafiti. Hivyo basi, mbali ya usaili na dodoso, mtafiti alitumia zana za ukusanyaji data kama vile; kinasa sauti, kamera na video kamera. Kabla ya kutumia zana hizi mtafiti aliwaeleza wahojiwa sababu ya kutumia zana hizi na kuwaomba ridhaa yao. Wahojiwa walielezwa umuhimu wa kutumia zana hizo katika utafiti huu, pia walielezwa wazi kuwa kila kitu kitakachorekodiwa pamoja na picha zote zitakuwa ni siri na zitatumika kwa usiri mkubwa kwa ajili ya malengo ya utafiti huu tu na si vinginevyo. Wahojiwa walikubali na kuwa tayari kurekodiwa na kupigwa picha za kamera na video ingawa pia wapo baadhi yao ambao walionekana kutoridhika na zoezi hili. Hata hivyo, pale ambapo wahojiwa hawakuwa tayari kurekodiwa mtafiti alilazimika kuandika kila kitu kilichozungumzwa na mhojiwa katika notibuku. Pamoja na hali hiyo, tatizo hili halikuathiri mchakato mzima wa kukusanya data katika utafiti huu. Jambo lingine la kimaadili ambalo mtafiti alilizingatia wakati wa kukusanya data ni suala la usiri. Kwa kuzingatia usiri inadhihirisha kwamba data za utafiti zitatumika kiasi kwamba hakuna mtu mwingine zaidi ya mtafiti atakaye jua chanzo cha data hizo. Mtafiti lazima ahakikishe kwamba mifano kutoka katika data hazionyeshi wala kubainisha utambulisho wa mshiriki ama mhojiwa. Kwa nyongeza, data zinaweza kuhifadhiwa katika vitu mbalimbali kama vile nyaraka za maandishi, tepurekoda za usaili, tepurekoda za video, na picha. Vitu hivyo vyote vyenye uwezo wa kumtambulisha mhojiwa lazima vihifadhiwe kwa uangalifu wakati wa ukusanyaji wa data na mwishoni mwa utafiti (Silva, 1995; Kvale, 1996; Speziale na Carpenter, 2007; Bachman na Schutt, 2007). Kwa kuzingatia suala la usiri, mtafiti aliwaahidi na kuwahakikishia wahojiwa walioshiriki katika usaili na kujaza hojaji, kuwa, kila kitu katika data walizozitoa na mjadala wa data hizo utafanywa kwa usiri mkubwa. Wahojiwa hawakutakiwa kuandika majina yao ili kulinda siri ya mtoa data. Hata hivyo, ieleweke kwamba, hakuna urejelezi wa jina uliofanywa katika uchambuzi, uwasilishaji na mjadala wa data. Hata wakati wa mchakato wa kukusanya data mtafiti hakuweza kutoa siri ya data alizopewa na mhojiwa mmoja kwa mhojiwa mwingine, ikiwa ni pamoja na majina yao. Kulingana na ahadi ambayo mtafiti aliitoa kwa wahojiwa wake, data zote alizokusanya kutokana na rekodi ya usaili, rekodi za video, picha, notibuku, notisi za uwandani na taarifa za hojaji mtafiti amezitunza kwa usiri mkubwa. Hii inaonyesha kwamba mtafiti alichukua hatua muhimu katika kuzingatia vipengele vyote vya uzingativu wa maadili katika utafiti. 1.8 Matatizo ya Utafiti Katika utafiti huu yapo matatizo ambayo yalijitokeza kabla na baada ya kwenda uwandani. Matatizo, katika utafiti wa aina yoyote ile, hayawezi kuepukika. Hivyo basi si ajabu kwamba katika utafiti huu pia yapo matatizo ambayo yaliyomkabili mtafiti. Matatizo hayo ni pamoja na upungufu wa fedha za utafiti, muda mfupi ambao mtafiti alipaswa kukamilisha utafiti huu, badhi ya watafitiwa kutokuwa tayari kutoa taarifa na ucheleweshwaji wa vibali vya kuendelea na ukusanyaji data. Baadhi ya matatizo hayo kama vile ukosefu wa fedha, watafitiwa kutokuwa tayari kutoa data na ucheleweshwaji wa vibali yalimfanya mtafiti kuchelewa kuanza utafiti wake kama ambavyo alipanga kulingana na ratiba ya utafiti. Aidha, mtafiti alikabiliana na vikwazo hivi kwa kukusanya fedha kwa kunakili data katika shajara na notibuku baada ya kusikiliza tamthiliya za Kanumba. Tatizo la baadhi ya watafitiwa kutokuwa tayari kuhojiwa lilishughulikiwa kwa njia ya usampulishaji nasibu tabakishi ambapo ilichukuliwa kuwa kila memba katika sampuli ya watafitiwa ana nafasi ya kuwa sampuli ya utafiti. Hivyo, mtafitiwa aliygoma kuhojiwa baada ya kuombwa kutoa taarifa za utafiti hakulazimishwa ili kuepusha kutolewa kwa data ambayo isingefaa kwa utafiti huu. Tatitzo la kucheleweshwa kwa vibali vya utafiti lilitatutliwa kwa mtafiti kuongeza masaa ya kukusanya data kwa siku tofauti na alivyokuwa amepanga hapo awali ili kumwezesha kukusanya data ambayo ingekidhi malengo ya utafiti wake. 1.9 Historia ya Kanumba Steven Charles Kanumba alizaliwa tarehe 8 mwezi wa kwanza mwaka 1984 katika hospitali ya serikali ya mkoa wa Shinyanga mjini Shinyanga nchini Tanzania. Shinyanga ni eneo ambalo lipo katika kanda ya ziwa. Wenyeji na wakazi wa Shinyanga ni Wasukuma na Wanyantuzu ambao huishi Bariadi. Shinyanga ni moja ya mikoa 21 ya Tanzania bara. Shinyanga wenyeji wake ni Wasukuma, kwa kabila Kanumba alikuwa ni Msukuma, ambapo tunaweza kusema ni Msukuma wa Shinyanga. Tunasema ni Msukuma wa Shinyanga kwa sababu kabila la Wasukuma ni kabila ambalo limechukua Mikoa ya Mwanza na Shinyanga. Hivyo wapo wasukuma wa Mwanza na Wasukuma wa Shinyanga. Kwa asili yake ni kijana wa Kisukuma. Baba yake anaitwa Charles Kanumba na mama yake anaitwa Flora Mutegoa. Katika historia ya tasnia ya filamu nchini Tanzania, Steven Kanumba ndiye aliyekuwa msanii wa kwanza nchini kufanya kazi nje ya nchi na kuweza kuwavuta wageni kutoka nchi mbalimbali kuja kuigiza Tanzania. Hasa walikuwa Wanaigeria kama vile Mercy Johnson, Emmanuel France, Nkiru Silvanus, Ramsey Nouah, na wengine wengi tu. Kanumba pia ameweza kuwaleta waongozaji filamu kadhaa wa Kinigeria nchini Kwa kawaida Wasukuma ni wacheshi, wakarimu na wenye upendo na heshima kwa kila mtu. Hizi ni sifa ambazo The Great alikuwa nazo kulingana na marafiki zake, magazeti, vyombo vya habari na televisheni ambazo zilimwelezea Kanumba kwa sifa hizi. Rejea mahojiano ya Janeth mtangazaji wa Televisheni ya Clouds alipohojiwa katika kipindi maalumu kuhusu Kanumba tarehe 7 mwezi wa 4 2012. Alimwelezea Kanumba kama kijana mpole aliyependa kusikiliza na kusaidia kila mtu, kijana mcheshi na mkarimu. Steven alianza masomo yake katika shule ya msingi ya Buyogi, iliyopo mkoani Shinyanga na baada ya elimu ya msingi alijiunga na shule ya sekondari ya Mwadui. Akiwa kidato cha nne alipata uhamisho na kuhamia katika shule ya sekondari ya Dar Christiana Seminary iliyopo jijini Dar es salaam. Baada ya kuhitimu kidato cha nne Kanumba aliendelea na masomo ya kidato cha tano na sita katika shule ya sekondari ya Jitegemee iliyopo jijini Dar es salaam. Lugha kuu ambazo alikuwa akiongea ni lugha mama yake ya Kisukuma, Kiswahili pamoja na Kiingereza. Steven Charles Kanumba alikuwa ni muigizaji na muongozaji wa filamu nchini Tanzania. Alifariki dunia akiwa na umri wa miaka 28 tarehe 7 April 2012. Inasemekana zaidi ya watu 40, 0000 walihudhuria maziko yake akiwemo mke wa Rais Mama Salma Kikwete, Makamu wa Rais Dkt. Mohamed Gharib Bilal na Waziri wa Habari, Utamaduni na Michezo wa wakati ule Mheshimiwa Emmanuel Nchimbi. Steven Kanumba alizikwa katika makuburi ya Kinondoni. Msanii huyu anayesemekana kuwa msanii nyota mkubwa wa filamu nchini Tanzania na pia ndiye msanii aliyeonekana katika filamu za Nollywood. Kanumba alianza kuigiza katika miaka ya tisini ambapo aliigiza maigizo ya kanisani. Mwaka 2001 alijiunga na kundi la sanaa la Kaole lililopo jijini Dar es salaam. Kwa mara ya kwanza lionekana katika michezo ya kuigiza ya televisheni kupitia michezo ya kuigiza ya Jahazi na Dira. Baadaye alitengeneza filamu yake ya kwanza iliyojulikana kama Haviliki. Mwaka 2006 alionekana katika filamu ya Dar 2 Lagos filamu iliyongozwa na Mtitu Game. Filamu iliyowahusisha wanaigeria na watanzania. Mwaka 2009 alikuwa mgeni maalumu katika mashindano ya Big brother Africa yaliyofanyika Afrika Kusini. Mwaka 2011 alitangazwa kuwa balozi wa Oxfam GROW. Kabla ya kifo chake alikuwa najiandaa kwenda kuigiza katika filamu za Hollywood. Kanumba alianza uigizaji miaka ya 90. Katika miaka ya 2002 nyota ya msanii huyu iling’ara na kuwaka katika sanaa ya uigizaji wa filamu ambapo alipata umaarufu mkubwa na kujulikana katika kila kona za nchi ya Tanzania. Kulingana na gazeti la Majira la tarehe 11 mwezi April 2012 katika toleo maalumu Kanumba alifahamika zaidi miaka ya 2002 alipojiunga na kundi la sanaa ya maigizo maarufu kama Kaole Sanaa Group. Akiwa kama muigizaji aliifanya kama kazi na kitu ambacho alikipenda. Katika mahojiano yake na Clouds TV ya 2012. Alieleza kwamba aliifanya kazi ya uigizaji kama kitu pekee ninachokipenda na kama kazi inayoniingizia kipato. Hivyo basi, Kanumba alipambana kuonyesha kipaji chake na pia kuwaburudisha kuwaelimisha, na kuwaonya watazamaji wake. Filamu alizotunga ni Johari, Gharika, Baragumu, Sikitiko Langu, Johari 2, Dangerous Desire, Dar 2 Lagosi, Cross My Sin, Village Paster, Family Tears. Filamu alizokwisha igiza ni pamoja na; Jahazi, Dira, Tufani, Gharika, Baragumu, Sikitiko Langu, Johari, Dangerous Desire, Dar 2 Lagosi, Riziki, Cross My Sin na The Point of no Return. Alifanya kazi nyingi ikiwemo uigizaji katika televisheni, uigizaji wa filamu, uongozaji wa filamu, uandishi wa maelezo ya filamu na pia alipata tuzo mbalimbali katika enzi za uhai wake. 1.9.1 Sehemu Ifuatayo Inaonyesha Kazi Alizofanya Filamu ambazo Kanumba ameshiriki kama mwigizaji ni pamoja na Haviliki, Neno, Ulingo, Riziki, Sikitiko Langu, Dangerous Desire, My Sister, Penina, Cross My Sin, A Point Of No Return, The Lost Twins, The Stolen Will, Village Pastor, Magic House, Oprah, Red Valentine, Family Tear, The Movie’s Director, Fake Smile, Unfortunate Love, Hero Of The Church, Saturday Morning, Shauku, Crazy Love, 2006 Johari, 2006 Dar 2 Lagos, 2010 More Than Pain, 2010 Young Billionare, 2010 Uncle JJ, 2010 This Is It, 2010 Off Side, 2011 Deception, 2011 Devil Kingdom, 2011 The Shock, na 2011 Moses. Aidha, Kanumba amewahi kuongoza filamu mbalimbali. Miongoni mwa filamu ambazo ameshiriki katika uongozaji wake ni: Mr Bahili, Kaka Benny, Lango La Jiji, Papara, Super Model, 2010 Young Billionare, 2010 More Than Pain, 2010 Uncle JJ, 2010 This Is It, 2011 Deception, 2011 Devil Kingdom, 2011 The Shock, 2011 Moses. 1.9.2 Tuzo Alizowahi Kupata Vilevile kutokana na kazi za sanaa ambazo Kanumba ameshiriki amepewa tuzo mbambali kutokana na umahiri alioonesha katika kazi hizo. Baadhi ya tuzo alizopata ni: 2006 Best Actor of the Year, 2007 Best Actor in Tanzania Award na 2007/2008 Best Artist of the Year Award. Kanumba alianza uigizaji miaka ya 90. 1.9.3 Tawasifu ya Kanumba (kaiandika mwenyewe) Kulingana na mtandao wa kijamii facebook Kanumba aliandika profile yake mwenyewe kuhusu yeye alizaliwa wapi na lini na amefanya nini katika maisha yake ya sanaa. Profile hiyo inajionesha kama ifuatavyo; Steven Charles Kanumba is my name, i was born in a Christian family of 2 girls and i happen to be the last born and the only boy to Mr. & Mrs. Charles Meshark Kanumba. I was given birth on january 8th 1984. I originate from Shinyanga Region in Tanzania. I am Sukuma by Tribe. I completed my Primary Education in Bugoyi Primary School in Shinyanga. After completing my primary education i started my secondary education right away in Mwadui Seminary Secondary School in Shinyanga where by I shifted to Dar-es-salaam Christian Seminary Secondary school here in Dar-es-salaam when I was still in form II and completed my O-Level Education there. Thereafter I moved to Jitegemee Sec. School to complete my A. Level Education. Growing up, acting has always been something that I really liked to do. Apart from that i also liked singing and that made me grave to be an artist while I was still in teens, still in school ie. I started acting in church a lot of people told me i had a talent so I decided to join Kaole Sanaa Group which delt with Acting. After joining Kaole Sanaa Group I met different Teachers from Bagamoyo and other College who helped me to build up my career of Acting for a period of 1 year, after that I got a special Training from University of Dar es salaam Under Doctor Nyoni for about 3 months therefore I was sure to go to work and indulge myself in Soap Operas/Series. I then took acting as my career. Little by little I got to win peoples' attention which made me work even harder and become successful. After all the hard work that I kept in series I decided to play a part in movies so I took a step forward and associate myself in film industry. I happen to do a lot of movies that did very well in the market and I’m still doing movies up today and it just get better day by day. in addition to this I archieved a lot through my hard work that is prestigious awards, travel across different countries, working with people from different part of the world meeting different people and learn new things and experiencing different life. I also got to get to work with Nollywood in Nigeria where by I did more than five movies with famous actors from Nolllywood, it was the wonderfull experience. I also got a chance to Visit The United States of America and there is where i got the experience of a lifetime I got visit Hollywood, Warner Bros Pictures, Universal Studios and Disney Land, I learnt a lot I met people who work there so I got to ask alot of Quaestions and gained a lot of knowledge. Speaking about me as Steven Kanumba i'm a very down to earthguy I like hanging out with my friends and I like to associates myself with people, I love children with all my life, I'm just a simple guy, I'm not outgoing a lot, I love going to movies and just be chilled out and relaxed places. I'm not married for the time being but I am in a commitment in the name of God I hope that one day we will get married. I would like to end with my most sincerly appreciation, first and foremost I would like to thank God Almighty for giving and Blessing me a beautiful talent cause apart from acting being my Job, it also happen to be something I love doing and when I am at it I do it with passion. I would also like to thank my whole family but special a
AHMAD ABDALLA SUWED(12-2013)
View

توظيف قطع الخزف المهملة في المشغولات الخشبية

تطورت المشغولات الخشبية الحديثة تطو ا ر كبي ا رً وملحوظاً من خلال ما أُدخل عليها من تأثي ا رت فنية وتقنية ، حيث كان للتقدم التكنولوجي الأثر الكبير على تصاميم المنتجات الخشبية خاصة بعد استخدام الحاسب الآلي في عمليات الإنتاج، بالإضافة إلى التنوع الكبير الذي شهده إنتاج الأخشاب الطبيعية وأيضاً الأخشاب المصنعة ذات الخواص المميزة ،وقد أتاح ذلك إمكانية إج ا رء التجارب لاكتشاف خامات جديدة ، واحداث تأثي ا رت تقنية وفنية حديثة على التصميم البنائي للمنتجات الخشبية ، وتصميم المشغولة الخشبية لا يقتصر على تأكيد الجانب الوظيفي فحسب ، بل أهتم أيضا بالناحية الجمالية ، مما جعل للمنتجات الخشبية كيانا مستقلا من حيث تفاعل خواص الخامة و بما تحتويه من قيم جمالية وقيم نفعية مع وسائل معالجتها، والعمليات التي تجرى عليها مثل التعشيق ولصق القشرة واضافة الحليات و الخرط و التشكيل والتجميع إلى غير ذالك من تقنيات تبرز جماليات خامة الخشب ، وذلك لإيجاد تمازج بين المضمون الجمالي والجانب النفعي أو الوظيفي . كما إن كثير من المنتجات الخشبية أبرزت قيم اً تعبيرية وتجسيمية من خلال زخرفتها بمختلف أساليب معالجة الأخشاب كالتلوين والحرق والتفريغ ، حيث أن الصانع اتجه إلى نحت الكتل الخشبية وحفرها وتلوينها لتحقيق التجسيم والإحساس بالظل والنور مع م ا رعاة النسب والأوضاع بالإضافة إلى الجانب التعبيري في التصميم، واستخدام المنظور والحركة فيه ، وظل المنتج الفني على مر العصور يؤكد على تلك القيم الجمالية ، إلى أن بدأ مؤخ ا رً الاهتمام بإب ا رز المقومات التشكيلية الأخرى التي تؤثر على المنتجات الخشبية فنيا وتقنيا ، مثل الاهتمام بالف ا رغ ، والتنوع في الملمس ، والبعد الثالث حيث تضافر العوامل الفنية والتقنيات المستخدمة في إنتاج هذه المشغولات لتحقيق ذلك ..
فاطمة عمران صالح الفرجاني, نزهات مفتاح محمد البوعيشي(7-2016)
publisher's website

اللوحة الفنية كأحد مكملات التصميم الداخلي

ملخص البحث: يتعرض هذا البحث إلى د ا رسة اللوحة الفنية باعتبارها من مكملات التصميم الداخلي وما تعكسه من جماليات على محددات العمارة الداخلية و لاسيما المحددات العمودية المتمثلة في الجد ا رن ،كما تطرق البحث إلى تنوع اللوحات الفنية وما وصلت إليه من تقدم بفعل التطور العلمي والتكنولوجي، كما تناول البحث ما يجب أن ي ا رعيه المصمم في وضعيات اللوحات في الف ا رغات الداخلية وذلك من حيث الحجم المناسب ودرجة التباين بينها وبين المكان المخصص لها ، والارتفاع المناسب والتوزيع الصحيح لها ، كما ينبغي م ا رعاة الوحدة والت ا ربط للوحات فيما بينها وذلك من حيث المضمون واللون ونوع اللوحة . أما فيما يتعلق بالجانب العملي للبحث فقد اتبع المنهج التجريبي لعمل تصميمات للوحات التشكيلية، وبيان كيفية الاستفادة من الخامات المحلية المختلفة التي تضاف إلى سطح العمل الفني وتساهم في تطوير الفكر التصميمي لدى مصممي الف ا رغ الداخلي ، وتمثل الجانب العملي في ثلاثة تصاميم استخدمت فيها الألوان المائية الثقيلة وخامات أخرى في تكوينات للتجريد الهندسي للوحات وتوظيفها في الف ا رغ الداخلي .
فاطمة عمران صالح الفرجاني(1-2022)
View publisher's website

الخزف والعمارة الإسلامية بين الماضي والحاضر

الفنون بصفة عامَّة مظي اً ر ميمِّا من مظاىر الثقافة السائدة في المجتمع,و بصفة خاصَّة كان الفنَّ الإسلامي يُعَدُّ من أنقى وأدقِّ صور التعبير عن الحضارة الإسلامية, والمساجد القديمة خير مثال, وىو ما لم يَمْقَ من الد ا رسة والتحميل ما ىو جدير بو, وتم إىمالو حتى وصمنا لما نحو من الإسيامات المعمارية القديمة في فن عمارة المساجد والتي ىي ميممة الآن تقنية القباب والظاىرة جمية في مسجد قرجى ومسجد القرمالي ومسجد شايب العين, حيث برع المسممون في تشييد القباب, وكانت ىذه القباب تعطي شكلاً جماليِّا ا رئعًا لممساجد, ويكفي أن تنظر إلييا كمثال ليذا الجمال حتى تدرك عظمة الحضارة الإسلامية.
فاطمة عمران صالح الفرجاني, نزهات مفتاح محمد البوعيشي(1-2016)
View publisher's website

Duality in Languages and Identity. Morocco as an Example

The field of language and identity has obtained importance within social culture and linguistic reality. This paper examines the relation between bilingualism or duality in languages and identity. Previous work on bilingualism has suggested a variety of significant in specific structural and language environments. However, the present study concludes that speaking to languages or more in a country may hurt and affect the identity and the culture of that country. Moreover, research investigating speech perception abilities of bilingual adults indicate that some bilinguals are capable of attaining equal or ultimate attainment abilities in their second language (Brice & Brice, 2008).. Finally, we realized that Moroccans people are more likely to speak French rather than Arabic. Then I will provide the theoretical compatibility of identity with the main theory of social system: social identity theory, hence providing a theoretical justification for the effect of identity. I think the effect in an identity is philosophically compatible with the current theories of identities and languages which influence today's identities. In fact, I believe the duality in languages can help give the social identity theory new meaning and rehabilitate their basic values and purpose. … Read more
Najib Erhuma(3-2015)
View publisher's website

معوقات الدراسات العليا لدى طلبة كلية الفنون والإعلام بجامعة طرابلس

يواجه طلبة الدراسات العليا في الجامعات الليبية العديد من المشاكل والصعوبات التي تعوق دون اكمال مسيرتهم العلمية في الوقت المطلوب، ويعد دراسة هذه المشاكل والوقوف عليها وتقييمها من أهم الركائز لتطوير اي برنامج دراسات عليا مستقبلاً، ومن هنا قام الباحث بدراسة العوائق التي تحول دون اكمال الطالب لدراسته العليا في الوقت المحدد وذلك حسب ما تشير اليه المادة 126 من اللائحة 501 لسنة 2010 والتي تحدد مدة دراسة الماجستير بثلاثة سنوات، مع امكانية اضافة ستة أشهر كحالة استثنائية، حيث لاحظنا استغراق الطالب لوقت طويل جداً لإكمال دراسته العليا، وذلك من خلال تواجد الباحث بصفة عضو هيئة تدريس بقسم الإعلام. ومن هنا تلخصت مشكلة البحث في السؤال: " ماهي الأسباب التي تجعل من طالب الدراسات العليا يستغرق أربع سنوات او اكثر للحصول على درجة الماجستير؟"، وقد أستخدم الباحث المنهج الوصفي كمنهجية للبحث، وأستخدم والاستبيان والمقابلة للحصول على نتائج واقعية من خلال العينة التي تم دراستها، وهي دفعة خريف 2015 لطلبة الدراسات العليا بقسم الإعلام بجامعة طرابلس. وتركزت أهداف البحث في معرفة الاسباب التي تجعل من الطالب يأخذ وقت طويل لمناقشة رسالة الماجستير والتأكد من المرحلة التي وصل اليها الطالب في دراسته العليا، وكذلك مدى اتساق أسباب التأخر بين الطالب والأستاذ، ومن خلال نتائج الاستبيان والمقابلة توصل الباحث لأهم النتائج وهي أن الطلبة والأستاذ اتفقوا على أن الظروف الخارجة عن المألوف كالحروب وماصاحبها من تهجير وعواقب نفسية واجتماعية وأخيراً جائحة كورونا كانت من أهم الاسباب التي جعلت اكمال الماجستير يستغرق وقت طويل، ,توصل الباحث أيضاً بأن اعتماد العنوان والخطة لم يستغرق وقتاُ طويلاً ولكن المشكلة في مرحلة مابعد الخطة، وأيضاً غياب أساتذة متخصصين في العلاقات العامة حال دون وجود تناسق وانسجام مع طالب العلاقات مما ساهم في اطالة أمد الدراسة، ومن أهم الاسباب التي ركز عليها أساتذة الدراسات العليا هي عدم اتقان الطالب لمناهج البحث العلمي.
نجيب فرج رحومة(3-2021)
View publisher's website

Dogmatism and its Impact on the Libyan Theatre

Summary of the Thesis Dogmatism and its Impact on the Libyan Theatre By Mohamed M. Z. Eghmea Theatre is an art related to the current, collective mental operations, phenomenon governing its community tracks and relationships and its individuals belief systems and directly – to regimes nature, ideology, beliefs and community values common in human communities whether in Europe or Arab communities, according theatre was characterized by multi trends and schools that were, in a form or another a result of organization or system of values and beliefs common in these communities. When Europe fell under church's sovereignty and religious control in its lagging ages, Galileo and other scientists were not the only victims of dogmatic mind of Pious men who contested every opinion disagreeing with their religious belief considered by some as unerring, theatre was forbidden, because they felt that it might affect their postulations and destroy their fortified belief, for that theatre was forbidden as disagreeing with church values and believes, western churches called for depriving Christian actors and actress of ritual practice and evicted them from church, kings and empires allied with church regarding forbidding acting, this position continued till the 16th century. Theatre collision with dogmatic values and beliefs organization was not limited to Europe in its lagging ages, rather theatre conflict with belief non flexibility extended to non flexible beliefs of human communities with all their cultures, races and ideologies and all religions and beliefs all over the theatre history, yet the main difference was in degree of unity of dogmatic fanaticism between one community and another, and one regime and another a phenomenon unlimited to a certain field, but extends to all political, economic, social, cultural and technical areas. Dogmatic mentality is common in our Arab communities and may take more acute and extremist form compared to another communities, if considering its effects on most of Arab communities, and Arab communities reaching to losing coexistence factors and accepting the other whether at religious, political or social level, some thinker believe that this phenomenon was aggravated and became one of the most important Arab mind restrictions towards development and creation due to subjection to mental and belief non flexibility. The common religious or political belief is having the absolute fact and every party pretends to be absolutely right, and that its values and beliefs are indisputable and that any different trend is mistaken, and according to the same strength through which dogmatic is cleaving to its ideology constituting its belief organization, it, by the same mental strength refuses any other or different ideology. Accordingly dogmatic mentality was the result of wars and bloody conflicts with holders of other beliefs and ideology, due to dogmatic mentality control over conflicting parties and every party insists that it has the absolute fact and surrounds it with a hallo of holiness and forbidding, accordingly using violence to defend their beliefs was justified because tolerance and accepting the other or changing ideology or belief according to surrounding variables is strongly refused by the common dogmatic mentality. As theatre is an art related to collective mentality ideology and the common belief organization, dogmatism affected the theatre product, this study discussed effects of dogmatic values and beliefs organization on Libyan theatre through its different history. Libya knew theatre art since the beginning of twentieth century, through this period Libya witnessed important political changes since Ottoman occupation, passing through Italian and British occupation till the post-independence, every stage had its closed belief system that affected the collective awareness and cultural and technical product as the study followed the effect of Libyan theatre through different values and beliefs systems that controlled literary, artistic and culture discourse for every historic stage in Libya by analyzing applied forms theatrical texts. Accordingly the problem of study of identifying effect of organization or system of demographic values or beliefs on the Libyan theatre through its history is clear, and every historic stage had a value and belief system meets the ruling authority's trends and ideology beginning from Turkish theocratic occupation that ruled under name of religion, followed by Italian occupation through which a mono trend systems dominated including ownership and Totalitarian Power, the Libyan theatre was subject to ideological trends depended on the regime organization and historically the study followed up theatrical artistic products of these stages as well theatrical movement activity in general, and displaying applied examples of some theatrical texts to reach a scientific explanation of effect of belief non flexibility, dogmatism on the Libyan theatre, and how far Libyan authors are attracted to or opposing dogmatic values and beliefs organization governing artistic and media discourse. The study chapters include an introduction, conclusion and four chapters, chapter one: titled (Dogmatism) its concept and relationship to theatre, the researcher discusses dogmatism in terms of origin, concept and relationship to theatre as a modern concept meeting nature clarifications, its definition, discussing the term origin and development and following up its contemporary concept through thinkers and philosophers opinions who studied and analyzed the phenomenon beginning with its establisher, the U.S scientist Milton Rokeach who included it in his book the open and the closed mind, "Milton RoKeach" was the first theorist and researcher who introduced this terminology to humanitarians, indicating that dogmatism is not limited to a certain scientific or cognitive field, rather may cognitive and creative scientific fields. In Chapter Two: titled (Libyan theatre between theocratic dogmatism and dogmatic fascism) in which the researcher discussed Ottoman, Italian and British occupation to Libya, and how far Libyan theatre is affected by values organization that governed during foreign occupation, whether religious effect under Turkish occupation or what was known by Ottoman Caliphate as well as what was faced by the Libyan theatre under Italian fascist occupation that affected the Libyan theatrical product and theatrical movement in general in its beginning. Chapter Three: titled (Libyan theatre and post independence political changes) the period extended for about 5 centuries between Royal regime and Gaddafi regime that over through royalty, the so called first of September revolution through which theatre was active at the level of quantity and quality, but theatrical works contents remained unlimited by the nature of every stage while royal regime was cleaving to beliefs and ideologies opposing Nasirist national and revolutionary extension in the 1995 and the 1960, the succeeding system was completely different so that national demographic and motivating discourse controlled over ideological discourse of this stage and most of author's texts met the prevailing discourse and any author tried oppose dogmatic beliefs was chased and even in prison, to clarify ideological violence more extreme than before. In chapter Four: title (applied examples of texts from Libyan theatre) the researcher analyzed some theatrical texts examples for some authors clarifying effects of dogmatic values and beliefs on some theatrical authors products, the researcher discussed examples of theatrical texts written to market and promote the ruling authority's ideology to meet dogmatic values and beliefs of the regime as well as examples that tried to cross demographic barriers and dealing with taboos, also the study identifies the effect of demographic beliefs an artistic and dramatic aspects to build the dramatic text then the researcher discusses the study conclusion and results and recommendations reached by. Of the most Important Study Results: First: Dogmatism affected the Libyans authors in terms of subjects and theatrical works artistic structure which was a case of theatrical text crises and emergence of dogmatic theatre which focused on direct political motivation and propaganda at the expense of theatrical work artistic value. Second: violence imprisonment and exile was the main method of dogmatic mentality for authorities rules Libya to deter authors and theatrical artists who tried to remove dogmatic barriers and cross taboo, religiously and politically. Third: Converting the theatre during most of seasonal festivals to just a media to market and promote the ruling authority's ideology and beliefs, due to agreement between number of authors and dramatists with the authority's dogmatic organization as well as theatre's subjection to control prohibiting displaying anything disagreeing with the ruling authority's beliefs. Fourth: in most cases, beliefs dramatists abandoned theatricality for ideology; some authors were not hesitated in changing historic facts in texts inspired by history to agree with the authority's beliefs and theories. Fifth: Dogmatic mentality restricted theatrical art development in home due to believing in having the absolute fact, answers ready for every human problems and insisting on marketing and enforcing the ruling authority's belief organization. ***
Mohamed M. Z. Eghmea(1-2017)
publisher's website

DOGMATISM AND ITS IMPACT ON LIBYAN THEATRE

Theatre is an art related to the current, collective mental operations, phenomenon governing its community tracks and relationships and its individuals belief systems and directly – to regimes nature, ideology, beliefs and community values common in human communities whether in Europe or Arab communities, according theatre was characterized by multi trends and schools that were, in a form or another a result of organization or system of values and beliefs common in these communities. When Europe fell under church's sovereignty and religious control in its lagging ages, Galileo and other scientists were not the only victims of dogmatic mind of Pious men who contested every opinion disagreeing with their religious belief considered by some as unerring, theatre was forbidden, because they felt that it might affect their postulations and destroy their fortified belief, for that theatre was forbidden as disagreeing with church values and believes, western churches called for depriving Christian actors and actress of ritual practice and evicted them from church, kings and empires allied with church regarding forbidding acting, this position continued till the 16th century. Theatre collision with dogmatic values and beliefs organization was not limited to Europe in its lagging ages, rather theatre conflict with belief non flexibility extended to non flexible beliefs of human communities with all their cultures, races and ideologies and all religions and beliefs all over the theatre history, yet the main difference was in degree of unity of dogmatic fanaticism between one community and another, and one regime and another a phenomenon unlimited to a certain field, but extends to all political, economic, social, cultural and technical areas. Dogmatic mentality is common in our Arab communities and may take more acute and extremist form compared to another communities, if considering its effects on most of Arab communities, and Arab communities reaching to losing coexistence factors and accepting the other whether at religious, political or social level, some thinker believe that this phenomenon was aggravated and became one of the most important Arab mind restrictions towards development and creation due to subjection to mental and belief non flexibility. The common religious or political belief is having the absolute fact and every party pretends to be absolutely right, and that its values and beliefs are indisputable and that any different trend is mistaken, and according to the same strength through which dogmatic is cleaving to its ideology constituting its belief organization, it, by the same mental strength refuses any other or different ideology.
Mohamed M Eghmea(1-2017)
View publisher's website