Publication List for Department of Nuclear Engineering

Publication statistics for Department of Nuclear Engineering

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    Document

A 3-D Numerical Study of Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer of Multiple Laminar Jets in Crossflow

Abstract

: In this study, a three dimensional computer code based on the so called SIMPLE algorithm (which stands for Semi-Implicit Method for Pressure-Linked Equations) developed by McGill University-Montréal-Canada is used for the numerical solution of a laminar fluid flow and heat transfer of impinging four jets in the presence of crossflow with constant temperature boundary condition on the impingement surface. The governing equations solved by the computer code are the continuity equation, three components of the momentum equation and the energy equation. The finite volume method is adopted for the discretisation of the governing equation. In the computer program, the finite difference equations are solved via the primitive pressure-velocity approach where the hybrid difference scheme, which is a combination of the central and upwind differences, is used to represent the convective and diffusive fluxes over the control volume surfaces. The results obtained show that in general, for multiple jets, the induced and imposed crossflow have significant effects on both the flow and temperature fields near the impingement surface. A strong crossflow deflects the jet and prevents it from impinging on the surface resulting in lower heat transfer rates and hence lower temperatures difference.The results also show that reducing the jet separation distances causes an increase of the temperature of the flow, and hence better cooling of impingement surface.
إبتسام عمارة (2008)

A Comparative Study Using Monte Carlo Codes for the Simulation of Photons Emitted by the Elekta Sl-25 Linear Accelerator at the Tripoli Medical Center

Abstract

: A 6MV and 15MV electron beams produced by the Elekta precise SL-25 linear accelerator at the Tripoli Medical Center (TMC) were modeled using the MCNP-4C code. Firstly the photon beam energies are tuned by comparison to experimental results previously performed at the TMC. Only the beam energy of the 6MV is modified to 6.2MV. Secondly the percent depth dose curves and beam profiles are calculated for the two energies in different field sizes in the water phantom. Matching with experiment is within an acceptable published allowance of 2%. The distances at which the maximum depth dose in the water phantom is reached are calculated as (1.5cm -1.7cm) for the 6.2MV setting and (2.7cm-3cm) for the 15MVsetting.
خديجة عمر بن ابراهيم (2011)

Study of Dose Distribution around a PET Facility in a Nuclear Medicine Clinic

Abstract

: Modern PET/CT clinics consist of a scanner room housing PET/CT unit and a control area, two or more waiting rooms where patients rest prior to scanning, and a hot lab where doses are prepared. The 511 keV photons from the PET positron emitting isotopes are the source term for the waiting rooms and the hot lab, while both the 511 keV photons and the polyenergtic spectrum of x-rays from the CT unit must be considered in the scanning roomThis study is intended to estimate dose distribution resulting from using a FDG procedure (555 MBq). The dose distribution is evaluated in injection room, waiting room, and scanning room using two methods. The first method is the analytical method whids is based on AAPM report № 108, while in the second method the dose distribution was simulated using the Monte Carlo code EGSXYZnrc .In the Monte Carlo method some parameters such as the optimal number of histories and the cut off energy of the electron are found to have a significant effect on the results. These parameters are tested and those values with less statistical error are adapted for the calculations.A good agreement between the two methods has been achieved. The dose distribution in the uptake room , waitting room and the scanning room appears to be below the annually dose limit and does not exceed 1% at the adjacent areas.
مريومة البهلول القرقني (2009)

A robust technique for detecting abdominal aortic calcification using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry

BACKGROUND: Abdominal aortic calcification (AAC) is a marker of atherosclerosis and a predictor of subsequent vascular disease. To date, there has been little research into the automatic detection and quantification of AAC. METHODS: In this study, lateral dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans are used to detect AAC; this is possible because of the anatomical position of the abdominal aorta anterior to the lumbar spine. The deformable shape modelling techniques active shape (ASM) and active appearance (AAM) models are used to model the calcified aorta and four vertebrae of the lumbar spine L1-L4. RESULTS: ASM and AAM were trained and tested on 14 DXA images. The shape of both calcified aorta and four lumbar vertebrae were extracted automatically from the DXA scans using combined shape and appearance models. CONCLUSION: ASM and AAM were implemented successfully. The calcified aorta obtained from the DXA scans was segmented using this modelling technique. The next step is to develop a new automated method to quantify the calcification within the aorta. arabic 13 English 89
Karima Elmasri(6-2015)
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Evaluation of vertebral fracture assessment images for the detection of abdominal aortic calcification

Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is an established modality for the assessment of bone mineral density. DXA has also been used for the detection of abdominal aortic calcification (AAC) using lateral images taken for vertebral fracture assessment (VFA). In this phantom study, the capability of VFA for the detection of AAC was investigated. A Perspex phantom of variable width in the range 15-30 cm was used to simulate abdominal soft tissue. Aluminium strips of thickness 0.05-2.0 mm were sandwiched between two halves of the phantom to mimic aortic calcification. VFA images of the phantom were acquired in single-energy mode and analysed by placing regions of interest over the aluminium strip and an adjacent area of Perspex. For each phantom width, the minimum detectable aluminium thickness was assessed visually and related to contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). Linearity of pixel value with aluminium thickness was tested by linear regression and correlation. Repeatability was measured with five repeated scans for selected phantom configurations. The minimum thickness of aluminium that could be visualised increased with phantom width and varied from 0.05 mm at 15 cm Perspex to 0.5 mm at 30 cm Perspex; the CNR threshold was about 0.03. At all phantom widths, the variation of pixel value with aluminium thickness was strongly linear (r²>0.98, p
Karima Elmasri, William David Evans, Yulia Hicks(6-2017)
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Determination of Dose Rates from Natural Radionuclides in Porcelain Dental Materials

There are three main aims that make this study particularly important and interesting to radiometric studies. Firstly, it will provides information on the concentration composition of natural and the associated man-made radioactivity of imported dental porcelain materials to be used by most dental laboratories in Great Jamahiriya. Since these materials do not pass radiation inspection tests before their entry or use and there is a large variety of supply source of these dental materials to be used for all dental works on Libyan patients, anomalies can be identified easily. Secondly, the analysis of selective elemental abundance (U, Th, and K ) and dose rate calculations may be used to calculate effective dose rates to dental laboratory technicians and also to the patient who will be using these specific materials. This research project will provide the first results of such measurements and the corresponding average annual effective dose rates equivalent to the patients using these materials and also to the dental technician and doctors work in the various dental laboratories that make use of these materials in their daily work. A total number of 30 dental powder samples were collected from a number of dental laboratories around Tripoli area will be analyzed. In this research project, the results from this preliminary survey regarding Th, U and K elemental concentrations in a wide variety of dental materials by means of high-resolution X-ray spectrometry will be presented. Further results from these investigations concerning activity concentrations and the associated dose rates, effective dose and the committed dose due to the use of these materials are going to be calculated and compared with other published data elsewhereandrecommendationoftheirusewillbederivedaccordingly. arabic 10 English 74
Karima Mohamed Ali Elmasri, Nouri A. Droughi(9-2010)
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Automatic Detection and Quantification of Abdominal Aortic Calcification in Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major cause of mortality and the main cause of morbidity worldwide. CVD may lead to heart attacks and strokes and most of these are caused by atherosclerosis; this is a medical condition in which the arteries become narrowed and hardened due to an excessive build-up of plaque on the inner artery wall. Arterial calcification and, in particular, abdominal aortic calcification (AAC) is a manifestation of atherosclerosis and a prognostic indicator of CVD. In this paper, a two-stage automatic method to detect and quantify the severity of AAC is described; it is based on the analysis of lateral vertebral fracture assessment (VFA) images. These images were obtained on a dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scanner used in single energy mode. First, an active appearance model was used to segment the lumbar vertebrae L1-L4 and the aorta on VFA images; the segmentation of the aorta was based on its position with respect to the vertebrae. In the second stage, feature vectors representing calcified regions in the aorta were extracted to quantify the severity of AAC. The presence and severity of AAC was also determined using an established visual scoring system (AC24). The abdominal aorta was divided into four parts immediately anterior to each vertebra, and the severity of calcification in the anterior and posterior walls was graded separately for each part on a 0-3 scale. The results were summed to give a composite severity score ranging from 0 to 24. This severity score was classified as follows: mild AAC (score 0-4), moderate AAC (score 5-12) and severe AAC (score 12-24). Two classification algorithms (k-nearest neighbour and support vector machine) were trained and tested to assign the automatically extracted feature vectors into the three classes. There was good agreement between the automatic and visual AC24 methods and the accuracy of the automated technique relative to visual classification indicated that it is capable of identifying and quantifying AAC over a range of severity. arabic 30 English 163
Karima Mohamed Ali Elmasri, William Evans, Yulia Hicks(1-2016)
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Studying of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) in Oilfield (A/100) South East of Libya

The huge volume of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) wastes produced annually by the oil and gas industry in Libya deserves the attention of the national environmental protection authority, radioactive waste management and regulatory bodies. An investigation was carried out to find out the concentration of (NORMs) in evaporation ponds sludge in south eastern oilfield (A/100) of Libya. Twenty soil samples were collected from five evaporation ponds sludge. Activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in soil generated during oil production operations were determined using a gamma spectroscopy system based on High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector. Concentrations ranged from 83 to 1000 Bq kg–1 for 226Ra, 59 to 315 Bq kg–1 for 232Th and 109 to 304 Bq kg–1 for 40K. To evaluate the radiological effects, radium equivalent activity and external hazard are calculated. The magnitude of these results demonstrates the need of screening oil residues for their radionuclide content in order to decide about possibility of minimize the environmental impact of NORM and their final disposal. Disposal of NORM waste has to be in accordance with national regulations, environmental policy and international agreements and conventions. The researchers recommend limits for clearance and disposal, based on best international practice. arabic 18 English 82
Usama Elghawi (1-2021)
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