Department of Nuclear Engineering

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Department of Nuclear Engineering has more than 11 academic staff members

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Dr. Karima Mohamed Ali Elmasri

Publications

Some of publications in Department of Nuclear Engineering

Evaluation of vertebral fracture assessment images for the detection of abdominal aortic calcification

Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is an established modality for the assessment of bone mineral density. DXA has also been used for the detection of abdominal aortic calcification (AAC) using lateral images taken for vertebral fracture assessment (VFA). In this phantom study, the capability of VFA for the detection of AAC was investigated. A Perspex phantom of variable width in the range 15-30 cm was used to simulate abdominal soft tissue. Aluminium strips of thickness 0.05-2.0 mm were sandwiched between two halves of the phantom to mimic aortic calcification. VFA images of the phantom were acquired in single-energy mode and analysed by placing regions of interest over the aluminium strip and an adjacent area of Perspex. For each phantom width, the minimum detectable aluminium thickness was assessed visually and related to contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). Linearity of pixel value with aluminium thickness was tested by linear regression and correlation. Repeatability was measured with five repeated scans for selected phantom configurations. The minimum thickness of aluminium that could be visualised increased with phantom width and varied from 0.05 mm at 15 cm Perspex to 0.5 mm at 30 cm Perspex; the CNR threshold was about 0.03. At all phantom widths, the variation of pixel value with aluminium thickness was strongly linear (r²>0.98, p
Karima Elmasri, William David Evans, Yulia Hicks(6-2017)
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A robust technique for detecting abdominal aortic calcification using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry

BACKGROUND: Abdominal aortic calcification (AAC) is a marker of atherosclerosis and a predictor of subsequent vascular disease. To date, there has been little research into the automatic detection and quantification of AAC. METHODS: In this study, lateral dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans are used to detect AAC; this is possible because of the anatomical position of the abdominal aorta anterior to the lumbar spine. The deformable shape modelling techniques active shape (ASM) and active appearance (AAM) models are used to model the calcified aorta and four vertebrae of the lumbar spine L1-L4. RESULTS: ASM and AAM were trained and tested on 14 DXA images. The shape of both calcified aorta and four lumbar vertebrae were extracted automatically from the DXA scans using combined shape and appearance models. CONCLUSION: ASM and AAM were implemented successfully. The calcified aorta obtained from the DXA scans was segmented using this modelling technique. The next step is to develop a new automated method to quantify the calcification within the aorta. arabic 13 English 89
Karima Elmasri(6-2015)
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A 3-D Numerical Study of Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer of Multiple Laminar Jets in Crossflow

Abstract: In this study, a three dimensional computer code based on the so called SIMPLE algorithm (which stands for Semi-Implicit Method for Pressure-Linked Equations) developed by McGill University-Montréal-Canada is used for the numerical solution of a laminar fluid flow and heat transfer of impinging four jets in the presence of crossflow with constant temperature boundary condition on the impingement surface. The governing equations solved by the computer code are the continuity equation, three components of the momentum equation and the energy equation. The finite volume method is adopted for the discretisation of the governing equation. In the computer program, the finite difference equations are solved via the primitive pressure-velocity approach where the hybrid difference scheme, which is a combination of the central and upwind differences, is used to represent the convective and diffusive fluxes over the control volume surfaces. The results obtained show that in general, for multiple jets, the induced and imposed crossflow have significant effects on both the flow and temperature fields near the impingement surface. A strong crossflow deflects the jet and prevents it from impinging on the surface resulting in lower heat transfer rates and hence lower temperatures difference.The results also show that reducing the jet separation distances causes an increase of the temperature of the flow, and hence better cooling of impingement surface.
إبتسام عمارة (2008)
Publisher's website

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