Department of Nuclear Engineering

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Department of Nuclear Engineering has more than 11 academic staff members

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Dr. Karima Mohamed Ali Elmasri

Publications

Some of publications in Department of Nuclear Engineering

Automatic Detection and Quantification of Abdominal Aortic Calcification in Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major cause of mortality and the main cause of morbidity worldwide. CVD may lead to heart attacks and strokes and most of these are caused by atherosclerosis; this is a medical condition in which the arteries become narrowed and hardened due to an excessive build-up of plaque on the inner artery wall. Arterial calcification and, in particular, abdominal aortic calcification (AAC) is a manifestation of atherosclerosis and a prognostic indicator of CVD. In this paper, a two-stage automatic method to detect and quantify the severity of AAC is described; it is based on the analysis of lateral vertebral fracture assessment (VFA) images. These images were obtained on a dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scanner used in single energy mode. First, an active appearance model was used to segment the lumbar vertebrae L1-L4 and the aorta on VFA images; the segmentation of the aorta was based on its position with respect to the vertebrae. In the second stage, feature vectors representing calcified regions in the aorta were extracted to quantify the severity of AAC. The presence and severity of AAC was also determined using an established visual scoring system (AC24). The abdominal aorta was divided into four parts immediately anterior to each vertebra, and the severity of calcification in the anterior and posterior walls was graded separately for each part on a 0-3 scale. The results were summed to give a composite severity score ranging from 0 to 24. This severity score was classified as follows: mild AAC (score 0-4), moderate AAC (score 5-12) and severe AAC (score 12-24). Two classification algorithms (k-nearest neighbour and support vector machine) were trained and tested to assign the automatically extracted feature vectors into the three classes. There was good agreement between the automatic and visual AC24 methods and the accuracy of the automated technique relative to visual classification indicated that it is capable of identifying and quantifying AAC over a range of severity. arabic 30 English 163
Karima Mohamed Ali Elmasri, William Evans, Yulia Hicks(1-2016)
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Determination of Dose Rates from Natural Radionuclides in Porcelain Dental Materials

There are three main aims that make this study particularly important and interesting to radiometric studies. Firstly, it will provides information on the concentration composition of natural and the associated man-made radioactivity of imported dental porcelain materials to be used by most dental laboratories in Great Jamahiriya. Since these materials do not pass radiation inspection tests before their entry or use and there is a large variety of supply source of these dental materials to be used for all dental works on Libyan patients, anomalies can be identified easily. Secondly, the analysis of selective elemental abundance (U, Th, and K ) and dose rate calculations may be used to calculate effective dose rates to dental laboratory technicians and also to the patient who will be using these specific materials. This research project will provide the first results of such measurements and the corresponding average annual effective dose rates equivalent to the patients using these materials and also to the dental technician and doctors work in the various dental laboratories that make use of these materials in their daily work. A total number of 30 dental powder samples were collected from a number of dental laboratories around Tripoli area will be analyzed. In this research project, the results from this preliminary survey regarding Th, U and K elemental concentrations in a wide variety of dental materials by means of high-resolution X-ray spectrometry will be presented. Further results from these investigations concerning activity concentrations and the associated dose rates, effective dose and the committed dose due to the use of these materials are going to be calculated and compared with other published data elsewhereandrecommendationoftheirusewillbederivedaccordingly. arabic 10 English 74
Karima Mohamed Ali Elmasri, Nouri A. Droughi(9-2010)
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Study of Dose Distribution around a PET Facility in a Nuclear Medicine Clinic

Abstract: Modern PET/CT clinics consist of a scanner room housing PET/CT unit and a control area, two or more waiting rooms where patients rest prior to scanning, and a hot lab where doses are prepared. The 511 keV photons from the PET positron emitting isotopes are the source term for the waiting rooms and the hot lab, while both the 511 keV photons and the polyenergtic spectrum of x-rays from the CT unit must be considered in the scanning roomThis study is intended to estimate dose distribution resulting from using a FDG procedure (555 MBq). The dose distribution is evaluated in injection room, waiting room, and scanning room using two methods. The first method is the analytical method whids is based on AAPM report № 108, while in the second method the dose distribution was simulated using the Monte Carlo code EGSXYZnrc .In the Monte Carlo method some parameters such as the optimal number of histories and the cut off energy of the electron are found to have a significant effect on the results. These parameters are tested and those values with less statistical error are adapted for the calculations.A good agreement between the two methods has been achieved. The dose distribution in the uptake room , waitting room and the scanning room appears to be below the annually dose limit and does not exceed 1% at the adjacent areas.
مريومة البهلول القرقني (2009)
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