Benzylpiperazine has been designated as Schedule I substance under the Controlled Substances Act by Drug Enforcement Administration. Benzylpiperazine is a piperazine derivative, elevates both dopamine and serotonin extracellular levels producing stimulatory and hallucinogenic effects, respectively, similar to methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). However, the comparative neurotoxic effects of Piperazine derivatives (benzylpiperazine and benzoylpiperazine) have not been elucidated. Here, piperazine derivatives (benzylpiperazine and benzoylpiperazine) were synthesized in our lab and the mechanisms of cellular-based neurotoxicity were elucidated in a dopaminergic human neuroblastoma cell line (SH-SY5Y). We evaluated the in vitro effects of benzylpiperazine and benzoylpiperazine on the generation of reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial complex-I activity, catalase activity, superoxide dismutase activity, glutathione content, Bax, caspase-3, Bcl-2 and tyrosine hydroxylase expression. Benzylpiperazine and benzoylpiperazine induced oxidative stress, inhibited mitochondrial functions and stimulated apoptosis. This study provides a germinal assessment of the neurotoxic mechanisms induced by piperazine derivatives that lead to neuronal cell death.