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UNIMED, Libya Restart, A journey Analysis,

Universities are an essential element for a country’s reconstruction, for its future, the starting point for civil society, a place for discussing and proposing solutions. This consideration has been the base for the initiative Libya Restart. This is the reason why, UNIMED has started the collaboration with Libyan HEIs since 2015 for common participation in projects co-funded in the framework of the Erasmus+ programme. As natural consequence, in 2018 UNIMED decided to launch Libya Restart, an institutional initiative aimed at gaining a deeper understanding of the Libyan Higher Education System, through a research activity performed jointly by UNIMED staff and Libyan University academic and technical staff. Together, we spent more than one year collecting and analyzing data and documentation, discussing results, sharing ideas, making mistakes, finding alternative primary sources. Between 2018 and 2019 we have conducted an assessment work on the Higher Education system in Libya, its main priorities, needs and challenges, through the submission of a quantitative survey and a series of qualitative interviews. In this process, UNIMED has cooperated with the Presidencies and International Relations Offices of 16 Libyan universities arabic 9 English 34
UNIMED(1-2020)
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Contacts on polyester textile as a flexible substrate for solar cells

In the present work, the authors have studied conductive surfaces on polyester fabrics by using two types of commercially available conductive polymers; polyaniline and poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly (styrenesulphonate) (PEDOT: PSS) with 100 nm aluminium thin film evaporated on top of the polymer so the fabric becomes a conductive substrate for inorganic thin film solar cells. Conductive polymer surfaces on woven polyester fabrics were obtained by knife-over-table coating technique. Surface resistivities for polyaniline and PEDOT: PSS coated fabrics were measured and found in the range of 400 × 103 and 1 × 103 Ω/□, respectively. Thermal stability tests were carried out to evaluate the effect of specific periods of heal treatment at different elevated temperatures on resistance of polymer coated conducting textiles. PEDOT: PSS exhibited better stability than panipol. According to long term tests, PEDOT: PSS coated samples showed improvement in conductivity over 3 days whereas panipol showed the opposite. Transmission Line Model tests were performed to measure aluminium/polymer contact resistances which were found to be 120 × 103 Ω for polyaniline and about 46.3 Ω for PEDOT: PSS. Mechanical bending tests for aluminium/PEDOT: PSS/fabric samples showed that the polymer can maintain the conductivity of samples by bridging micro-cracks in the metal film. arabic 10 English 59
Adel G A Diyaf, John Wilson, Robert R. Mather(1-2014)
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Les langues d'origines et langues héritées en contexte libyen : approche historico-sociolinguistique

Toutes les ressources historico-sociolinguistique offrent un riche descriptif de l'héritage linguistique en Libye à travers de nombreux facteurs : historique, archéologique, économique, social. Mais, sur le plan de la linguistique, peu d'études se sont penchées sur la Libye. Dans la présente étude, nous essayerons d'étudier à travers de facteurs historicosociolinguistique les langues d'hier et aujourd'hui. arabic 18 English 84
FATHI SALEM ALI TERFAS(1-2020)
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Assessing Ecosystem Services of Atmospheric Calcium and Magnesium Deposition for Potential Soil Inorganic Carbon Sequestration

Many soil regulating ecosystem services (ES) are linked to Earth’s atmosphere, but associated monetary values often are unknown or difficult to quantify. Atmospheric deposition of calcium (Ca2+) and magnesium (Mg2+) are abiotic flows (wet, dry, and total) from the atmosphere to land surfaces, which potentially can become available to sequester carbon (C) as soil inorganic carbon (SIC). However, these processes typically have not been included in economic valuations of ecosystem services. The primary objective of this study was to demonstrate an approach for valuing non-constrained potential SIC sequestration from atmospheric Ca2+ and Mg2+ deposition based on the concept of the avoided social cost of carbon dioxide emissions (SC-CO2). Maximum monetary values associated with the non-constrained potential SIC sequestration were compiled for the contiguous United States (U.S.) by soil order, land resource region (LRR), state, and region using available deposition data from the National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NRSP-3). For the entire contiguous U.S., an average annual monetary value for the non-constrained potential SIC sequestration due to atmospheric Ca2+ and Mg2+ deposition was $135M (i.e., $135 million U.S. dollars, where M = million = 106). Mollisols, Alfisols, and Entisols were soil orders with the highest average annual monetary values for non-constrained potential SIC sequestration. When normalized by land area, however, Vertisols had the highest average annual monetary values followed by Alfisols and Mollisols for non-constrained potential SIC sequestration. From a more agricultural perspective, the LRRs with the highest average annual monetary values for non-constrained potential SIC sequestration were the Western Range and Irrigated Region (D), the Central Feed Grains and Livestock Region (M), and the Central Great Plains Winter Wheat and Range Region (H). When normalized by area, the LRRS with the highest average annual monetary values were the Southwest Plateaus and Plains Range and Cotton Region (I) and the Florida Subtropical Fruit, Truck Crop and Range Region (U). Among the U.S. states, the highest average annual monetary values for non-constrained potential SIC sequestration were Texas, Kansas, and New Mexico, but when normalized by area the highest values by state were Kansas, Iowa, and Texas. Geographical regions in the contiguous U.S. with the highest average annual monetary values for non-constrained potential SIC sequestration were the South Central, Midwest, and West; when normalized by area, the highest values by region were South Central, Midwest, and Northern Plains. Constraints on maximum monetary values, based on physical, chemical, biological, economic, social, and political limitations, need to be considered and quantified to obtain more precise and accurate accounting of the ES associated with SIC sequestration due to atmospheric Ca2+ and Mg2+ deposition. arabic 14 English 112
Elena A. Mikhailova, Hamdi A. Zurqani, Christopher J. Post, Mark A. Schlautman(5-2020)
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Phyto-pharmaceuticals and biological study on graviola (Annona muricata L.) fruit and dietary supplement of graviola sold on the Libyan market as a cancer cure against TCA induce hepatotoxicity in mice

Annona muricata (Graviola) has many medicinal properties and used widely in traditional medicine for treatment various disorders. The present study was conducted to evaluate phytochemical and quality control (QC) of random sample of graviola dietary supplement capsules (DS) which sold in the Libyan market as anticancer product. As well as the present work designed to evaluate heatoprotective effects of aqueous extract of graviola fruit pulp or aqueous DS of graviola capsules against trichloroacetic acid (TCA) induced hepatotoxicity in albino mice. Quality control parameters were determined on random samples of graviola DS using standard methods. A total of 120 female mice were divided into 6 groups and were used for biological screening to determine biochemical and histopathological alteration in liver of mice treated with TCA with or without aqueous extract of A.muricata fruit pulp or DS of graviola. The results of quality control and phytochemical screening revealed that all quality control tests conducted on the random sample of DS capsules of graviola were within normal values according to the standards of the Quality Control Center for Pharmaceuticals in Tripoli, only few samples showed slight increase in the moisture content. However, all samples appeared free from microbial contamination. While, growth of fungal contamination (Pencillium Spp) in the same samples were detected but all samples appeared free from aflatoxins contamination. Also, all samples were free from industrial radioactive contamination. Phytochemical study revealed presence of alkaloids, tannins, steroids, glycosides, falvonoids, anthraquinones, saponin and coumarins in extracts of graviola fruit pulp and graviola DS capsules. However, absence some phytochemical components in DS capsules was detected. The result of biological screening revealed that no clinical signs and abnormalities in behavior and external feature in mice treated with aqueous extract of graviola fruit pulp or aqueous extract of graviola DS capsules. However, the treatment with aqueous extract of graviola fruit pulp and DS of graviola reduced the abnormal changes in behavior and external features in female mice intoxicated with TCA, markedly reduced the mortality in TCA administrated mice and induced slight improvement in the final body weight comparing to TCA only intoxicated group. Biochemical study revealed that administration of aqueous extract of graviola fruit pulp or aqueous extract of DS of graviola significantly decreased the elevated serum activities of AST and ALT compared to TCA only intoxicated mice. Histological examination revealed that administration of aqueous extract of graviola fruit plup or aqueous extract of DS of graviola with TCA induced ameliorative changes and disappearance of the most pathological changes in the liver tissue compared to of TCA only intoxicated mice and the ameliorating changes were more obvious in the mice treated with aqueous extracts of DS of graviola and TCA. The present results demonstrate that A. muricata play an important role in the protection against TCA induced hepatotoxicity. It can be concluded that the present study provide some pharmacological and therapeutical informations about extract of the graviola fruit pulp and DS of graviola capsules which can use in future investigations and applications and demonstrated presence of important phyochemical constituents in the graviola fruit pulp extract and DS of graviola capsules. The extract of the graviola fruit pulp and DS of graviola capsules have protective effects against TCA induced liver toxicity in mice. arabic 33 English 168
Ajlal A. A. Alzergy, Mukhtar R. Haman, Muftah A. M. Shushni, , Fairouz A. Almagtouf (2-2018)
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Antibacterial and antioxidant activities of Mentha piperita L.

The antibacterial activity of peppermint oil and different extracts of Mentha piperita against some Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains was evaluated in the present research work by agar well diffusion method. It was found that the distilled concentrations of essential oil inhibited the growth of microorganisms and the results were comparable with those of antibiotic gentamycin. Essential oils showed a wider spectrum of activity but less strong inhibition as compared to the investigated commercial antibiotic. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for the bacterial species ranged from 0.4% to 0.7% v/v. The oil and extracts also exhibited significant antioxidant activity and the oil showed about half potency when compared to the standard BHT. These results indicated the strong antibacterial and antioxidant activities of peppermint oil but additional investigations need to be performed in order to confirm the safety of these concentrations (MIC) for human consumption. Peppermint oil could be used as a good conservation agent by inhibiting some food borne pathogens. arabic 8 English 54
Rajinder Singh, Muftah A. Shushni, Asma Belkheir(5-2015)
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Influence of fungal napthalenone derivatives on immune cells in an in vitro model of inflammation

Marine fungi are a promising source for bioactive compounds [1]. The fungal strain 222 has been isolated from wood collected at the coast of the Greifswalder Bodden, Baltic Sea, Germany and produces structurally new naphthalenone derivatives, balticols A to F. They possess antiviral activities [2]. Since other naphthalene compounds are known for their anti-inflammatory activities we investigated whether the balticols have an influence on inflammatory immune cells. Balticols (1 and 10µg/ml) were added to rat mononuclear cells (F344-MNC) which were cultured alone or together with H9c2-cardiomyocytes. The latter represents a model of inflammation similar as observed after myocardial infarction. MNC's were collected after 48h and analyzed for T-, B-, NK-, TH-cells and CTL's by flow cytometry. Dexamethasone (Dexa, 10–9 mol/l) served as positive control. None of the balticols except balticol E changed the number of control MNC's. The proportion of T-cells was decreased by balticol B and D, but ICAM-1+T-cells increased. Balticol D decreased TH- and increased B-cells as Dexa which additionally decreased CTL's. None of the substances influenced NK cells. After co-culture with cardiomyocytes TH-cells were decreased while CTL's and ICAM-1+T-cells increased. Balticol D partly anticipated the decrease of TH. Balticol E decreased T-cells, especially TH-cells, but stimulated ICAM-1+T-cells. Dexa anticipated the increase of CTL's, had no influence on the proportion of TH-cells and diminished ICAM-1+T-cells. In summary, balticols B, D and E influence unstimulated MNC's. Unambiguous anti-inflammatory effects were detected using Dexa and balticol E which exerts its effect due reduction of T-cells. arabic 14 English 83
B. Haertel, Muftah A. Shushni, Ulrike Lindequist(1-2010)
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Precursor-directed syntheses and biological evaluation of new elansolid derivatives

The antibiotic elansolid C1 (8) was isolated from Chitinophaga sancti strain FxGBF13 after fermentation in the presence of anthranilic acid. Remarkably, 8 was also obtained by addition of anthranilic acid to a crude fermentation extract containing the macrolide elansolid A2 (1*). This Michael-type conjugate addition allowed us to generate 21 new derivatives of elansolid C1 (9-29) by using various nucleophiles. Biological activities of all derivatives were evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus luteus, and the mouse cell line L929. arabic 9 English 74
Heinrich Steinmetz, Wiebke Zander, Muftah A. M. Shushni, Rolf Jansen, Klaus Gerth, Richard Dehn, Gerald Dräger, Andreas Kirschning, Rolf Müller(8-2012)
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